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Translational Neuroscience

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Astrocytes: Emerging stars in leukodystrophy pathogenesis

Angela Lanciotti
  • Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy
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/ Maria Brignone
  • Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy
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/ Enrico Bertini
  • Unit of Neurodegenerative Disorders Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Bambino Gesù Pediatric Research Hospital, Piazza S. Onofrio 4, 00165, Rome, Italy
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/ Tamara Petrucci
  • Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy
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/ Francesca Aloisi
  • Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy
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/ Elena Ambrosini
  • Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy
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Published Online: 2013-06-09 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13380-013-0118-1

Abstract

Astrocytes are the predominant glial cell population in the central nervous system (CNS). Once considered only passive scaffolding elements, astrocytes are now recognised as cells playing essential roles in CNS development and function. They control extracellular water and ion homeostasis, provide substrates for energy metabolism, and regulate neurogenesis, myelination and synaptic transmission. Due to these multiple activities astrocytes have been implicated in almost all brain pathologies, contributing to various aspects of disease initiation, progression and resolution. Evidence is emerging that astrocyte dysfunction can be the direct cause of neurodegeneration, as shown in Alexander’s disease where myelin degeneration is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the astrocyte-specific cytoskeleton protein glial fibrillary acidic protein. Recent studies point to a primary role for astrocytes in the pathogenesis of other genetic leukodystrophies such as megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts and vanishing white matter disease. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge of the pathophysiological role of astrocytes focusing on their contribution to the development of the above mentioned leukodystrophies and on new perspectives for the treatment of neurological disorders.

Keywords: Leukodystrophies; Glial cells; Myelin; Ion homeostasis; CNS diseases; Alexander’s disease; Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC); Vanishing white matter disease

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About the article

Published Online: 2013-06-09

Published in Print: 2013-06-01


Citation Information: Translational Neuroscience, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 144–164, ISSN (Online) 2081-6936, ISSN (Print) 2081-3856, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13380-013-0118-1.

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