Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Translational Neuroscience

Editor-in-Chief: David, Olivier

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.833
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.247

CiteScore 2017: 1.00

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.428
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.244

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Personality trait correlates of color preference in schizophrenia

Baiping Tao
  • Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry / School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310058, China
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Shaofang Xu
  • Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry / School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310058, China
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Xin Pan
  • Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry / School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310058, China
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Qianqian Gao
  • Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry / School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310058, China
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Wei Wang
  • Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry / School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310058, China
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2015-09-04 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/tnsci-2015-0018


Background: The goal of the present study was to evaluate the color preferences of patients with schizophrenia and their correlations with personality traits. Methodology: Sixty-three patients with schizophrenia and 59 healthy volunteers were asked to undertake the color preference and the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) tests. Results: The healthy volunteers showed a greater preference for green but a lesser one for brown compared to the patients with schizophrenia. Patients scored higher than the healthy volunteers on the ZKPQ Neuroticism-Anxiety and Activity scales. Moreover, in patients, black preference ranking was associated with the Neuroticism-Anxiety, whereas pink and orange preferences were negatively associated with Activity; white preference correlated negatively with Sociability. Conclusions: Patients with schizophrenia preferred green less but brown more, and displayed their personality correlates of these color preferences. These findings are suggesting that patients with schizophrenia should be encouraged to be more exposed to bright colors such as green and white, and less to dark colors such as black, during therapy and rehabilitation sessions.

Keywords: Schizophrenia; Color preference; Personality trait


  • [1] Kim J.J., Lee S.J., Toh K.Y., Lee C.U., Lee C., Paik I.H., Identification of antibodies to heat shock proteins 90 kDa and 70 kDa in patients with schizophrenia, Schizophr. Res., 2001, 52, 127-135 Google Scholar

  • [2] Collins A.L., Kim Y., Bloom R.J., Kelada S.N., Sethupathy P., Sullivan P.F., Transcriptional targets of the schizophrenia risk gene MIR137, Transl. Psychiatry, 2014, 4, e404 Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [3] Bener A., Dafeeah E.E., Samson N., Does consanguinity increase the risk of schizophrenia?, Study based on primary health care centre visits, Ment. Health Fam. Med., 2012, 9, 241-248 Google Scholar

  • [4] Iyegbe C., Campbell D., Butler A., Ajnakina O., Sham P., The emerging molecular architecture of schizophrenia, polygenic risk scores and the clinical implications for GxE research, Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol., 2014, 49, 169-182 Google Scholar

  • [5] Fearon P., Morgan C., Environmental factors in schizophrenia: the role of migrant studies, Schizophr. Bull., 2006, 32, 405-408 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [6] Morgan C., Fisher H., Environment and schizophrenia: environmental factors in schizophrenia: childhood trauma - a critical review, Schizophr. Bull., 2007, 33, 3-10 CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [7] Krabbendam L., van Os. J., Schizophrenia and urbanicity: a major environmental influence-conditional on genetic risk, Schizophr. Bull., 2005, 31, 795-799 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [8] McDonald C., Murray R.M., Early and late environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, Brain Res. Rev., 2000, 31, 130-137 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [9] Thatcher A., Milner K., Changes in productivity, psychological wellbeing and physical wellbeing from working in a ‘green’ building, Work, 2014, 49, 381-393 Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [10] Stigsdotter U.K., Grahn P., Stressed individuals’ preferences for activities and environmental characteristics in green spaces, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 2011, 10, 295-304 Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [11] Kim T.H., Song J.K., Jeong G.W., Neural responses to the human color preference for assessment of eco-friendliness: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, Int. J. Environ. Res., 2012, 6, 953-960 Google Scholar

  • [12] Holmes C.B., Fouty H.E., Wurtz P.J., Burdick B.M., The relationship between color preference and psychiatric disorders, J. Clin. Psychol., 1985, 41, 746-749 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [13] Kuloğlu M., Atmaca M., Tezcan A.E., Unal A., Gecici O., Color and number preferences of patients with psychiatric disorders in eastern turkey, Percept. Mot. Skills, 2002, 94, 207-213 Google Scholar

  • [14] Cernovsky Z.Z., Fernando L.M., Color preference of ICD-9 schizophrenics and normal controls, Percept. Mot. Skills, 1988, 67, 159-162 Google Scholar

  • [15] Sadr S., Mohammad A., Color preference and rejection in schizophrenic and normal subjects, Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (Behbood), 2004, 8, 10-16 Google Scholar

  • [16] Picco R.D., Dzindolet M.T., Examining the Lüscher Color Test, Percept. Mot. Skills, 1994, 79, 1555-1558 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [17] Fetterman A.K., Liu T., Robinson M.D., Extending color psychology to the personality pealm: interpersonal hostility varies by red preferences and perceptual biases, J. Pers., 2015, 83, 106-116 Google Scholar

  • [18] Lysaker P.H., Wilt M.A., Plascak-Hallberg C.D., Brenner C.A., Clements C.A., Personality dimensions in schizophrenia: associations with symptoms and coping, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 2003, 191, 80-86 Google Scholar

  • [19] Beauchamp M.C., Lecomte T., Lecomte C., Leclerc C., Corbière M., Do people with a first episode of psychosis differ in personality profiles?, Schizophr. Res., 2006, 85, 162-167 Google Scholar

  • [20] Sotiropoulou M., Mantas C., Bozidis P., Marselos M., Mavreas V., Hyphantis T., et al., BDNF serum concentrations in first psychotic episode drug-naïve schizophrenic patients: associations with personality and BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, Life Sci., 2013, 92, 305-310 Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [21] World Health Organization, The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1992 Google Scholar

  • [22] Zuckerman M., Kuhlman D.M., Joireman J., Teta P., Kraft M., A comparison of three structural models for personality: The Big Three, the Big Five, and the Alternative Five, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 1993, 65, 757-768 Google Scholar

  • [23] Wu Y.X., Wang W., Du W.Y., Li J., Wang Y.H., Development of a Chinese version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire: reliabilities and gender/age effects, Soc. Behav. Pers., 2000, 28, 241- 250 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [24] Griskevicius V., Tybur J.M., Van den Bergh B., Going green to be seen: status, reputation, and conspicuous conservation, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 2010, 98, 392-404 Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [25] Siris S.G., Depression in schizophrenia: perspective in the era of “Atypical” antipsychotic agents, Am. J. Psychiatry, 2000, 157, 1379- 1389 Google Scholar

  • [26] Siris S.G., Diagnosis of secondary depression in schizophrenia: implications for DSM-IV, Schizophr. Bull., 1991, 17, 75-98 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [27] Nolan R.F., Dai Y., Stanley P.D., An investigation of the relationship between color choice and depression measured by the Beck Depression Inventory, Percept. Mot. Skills, 1995, 81, 1195-1200 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [28] Manav B., Color - emotion associations and color preferences: a case study for residences, Color Res. Appl., 2007, 32, 144-150 Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [29] Berenbaum H., Fujita F., Schizophrenia and personality: exploring the boundaries and connections between vulnerability and outcome, J. Abnorm. Psychol., 1994, 103, 148-158 Google Scholar

  • [30] Camisa K.M., Bockbrader M.A., Lysaker P., Rae L.L., Brenner C.A., O’Donnell B.F., Personality traits in schizophrenia and related personality disorders, Psychiatry Res., 2005, 133, 23-33 Google Scholar

  • [31] Zuckerman M., Cloninger C.R., Relationships between Cloninger’s, Zuckerman’s, and Eysenck’s dimensions of personality, Pers. Individ. Dif., 1996, 21, 283-285 Google Scholar

  • [32] Smits J.A., Berry A.C., Rosenfield D., Powers M.B., Behar E., Otto M.W., Reducing anxiety sensitivity with exercise, Depress. Anxiety, 2008, 25, 689-699 Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [33] Pajonk F.G., Wobrock T., Gruber O., Scherk H., Berner D., Kaizl I., et al., Hippocampal plasticity in response to exercise in schizophrenia, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 2010, 67, 133-143 CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [34] Birren F., Aspects of light and color bearing on the reactions of living things and the welfare of human beings, In: Birren F. (Ed.), Color and human response, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, USA, 1978, 30 Google Scholar

  • [35] Sharpe D.T., The psychology of color and design, Nelson-Hall, Chicago, USA, 1974, 170 Google Scholar

  • [36] Saito M., A comparative study of color preferences in Japan, China and Indonesia, with emphasis on the preference for white, Percept. Mot. Skills, 1996, 83, 115-128 Google Scholar

  • [37] Jetha M.K., Goldberg J.O., Schmidt L.A., Temperament and its relation to social functioning in schizophrenia, Int. J. Soc. Psychiatry, 2013, 59, 254-263 Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [38] Crozier W.R., The psychology of colour preference, Review of Progress in Coloration and Related Topics, 1996, 26, 63-72 Google Scholar

  • [39] Schaie K.W., Scaling the association between colors and mood-tones, Am. J. Psychol., 1961, 74, 266-273 Google Scholar

  • [40] He W., Zhang Y., Zhu J., Xu Y., Yu W., Chen W., et al., Could sex difference in color preference and its personality correlates fit into social theories? Let Chinese university students tell you, Pers. Individ. Dif., 2011, 51, 154-159 Google Scholar

  • [41] Hardin C. L., Maffi L., Color categories in thought and language, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1997, 82 Google Scholar

  • [42] Penn D.L., Keefe R.S., Davis S.M., Meyer P.S., Perkins D.O., Losardo D., et al., The effects of antipsychotic medications on emotion perception in patients with chronic schizophrenia in the CATIE trial, Schizophr. Res., 2009, 115, 17-23 Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2015-05-06

Accepted: 2015-07-28

Published Online: 2015-09-04

Citation Information: Translational Neuroscience, Volume 6, Issue 1, ISSN (Online) 2081-6936, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/tnsci-2015-0018.

Export Citation

©2015 Baiping Tao, et al.. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in