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Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte

Ed. by Altrichter, Helmut / Möller, Horst / Szöllösi-Janze, Margit / Wirsching, Andreas


CiteScore 2017: 0.14

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.104
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.940

Online
ISSN
2196-7121
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Volume 60, Issue 3

Issues

Antikommunismus als politischer Leitfaden des Vatikans?

Affinitäten und Konflikte zwischen Heiligem Stuhl und NS-Regime im Jahr 1933

Thies Schulze
Published Online: 2012-07-19 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1524/vfzg.2012.0019

Vorspann

Im Frühjahr 1933 überraschte Papst Pius XI. die Welt. Er lobte Hitler als den einzigen Staatsmann, der etwas gegen den Kommunismus unternehme, und gab damit der Hoffnung Ausdruck, in der neuen deutschen Regierung einen Bündnispartner gegen die „rote Gefahr“ finden zu können. Thies Schulze, Historiker an der Universität Münster, analysiert die Ursachen dieser überraschenden Wende und untersucht die Folgen der merklichen Annäherung, zu denen nicht zuletzt die Aufnahme der Verhandlungen für das Reichskonkordat zählte. Sein Beitrag wirft somit auch ein neues Licht auf die Scholder/Repgen-Debatte, die in der letzten Ausgabe der VfZ historisiert wurde.

Abstract

On a number of occasions in early March 1933, Pope Pius XI voiced the opinion, that Hitler was the only statesman doing something against Communism. His utterances were in no way spontaneous or thoughtless, as some of his interlocutors suspected. Rather they expressed his hope that the new government in Germany could be won as an ally against the Communist threat and the alleged accompanying moral decline. Even though the period of rapprochement towards Germany, which the Pope initiated after the Reichstag fire, only lasted for a few weeks and even though Pius XI noticeably moved away from his rather benevolent view of German politics since late April 1933, this phase was certainly important for the relationship between church and state during the Third Reich. During this time, essential decisions were made, including the commencement of negotiations about the Reich Concordat. The article examines the motives on which the papal view of Germany was based, and in particular investigates the question which domestic and foreign policy aims it was connected with. It discusses the reasons why papal policy was once again revised as of May 1933. Finally it provides a perspective on the later years of the Nazi regime and discusses whether and to what extent anti-communist motives influenced papal policy even after 1933.

Keywords: Vatikan und Hitler 19; Antikommunismus des Vatikans; Pius XI.

About the article

Published Online: 2012-07-19

Published in Print: 2012-07-15


Citation Information: Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, Volume 60, Issue 3, Pages 353–379, ISSN (Online) 2196-7121, ISSN (Print) 0042-5702, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1524/vfzg.2012.0019.

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