Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

World Political Science

Ed. by Cardinal, Linda


CiteScore 2017: 0.28

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.211
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.143

Online
ISSN
2363-4782
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Social Movements and Political Opportunities: Lesbians, Gays and the Inclusion of Sexual Orientation in the Québec Charter of Human Rights

Manon Tremblay
  • Corresponding author
  • Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ottawa, School of Political Studies, 120 University Street, room 7071, Ottawa ON, Canada K1N 6N5
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2015-04-22 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/wps-2015-0005

Abstract

In December 1977, the Québec government, formed by the Parti québécois (PQ), amended the Québec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms to include sexual orientation as a prohibited ground of discrimination. Québec thus became the first jurisdiction in North America to prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. This paper examines the reasons why the PQ government stood ahead of everybody else in this matter. It argues that the Québec lesbian and gay movement drew on favorable political and cultural opportunities to secure legal protection against discrimination.

Keywords: discrimination; lesbians and gays; Parti québécois; Québec; Québec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms; sexual orientation

Original reference: Tremblay, Manon (2013). Mouvements sociaux et opportunités politiques: les lesbiennes et les gais et l’ajout de l’orientation sexuelle à la Charte québécoise des droits et libertés, Revue canadienne de science politique 46(2):295–322.

References

  • Adam, Barry D. (1995) The Rise of a Gay and Lesbian Movement. Revised Edition. New York: Twayne.Google Scholar

  • Adam, Barry D. (1999) “Moral Regulation and the Disintegrating Canadian State.” In: (Barry D. Adam, Jan Willem Duyvendak and André Krouwel, eds.) The Global Emergence of Gay and Lesbian Politics: National Imprints of a Worldwide Movement. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, pp. 12–29.Google Scholar

  • Anderssen, Norman and Tone Hellesund (2009) “Heteronormative Consensus in the Norwegian Same-Sex Adoption Debate?,” Journal of Homosexuality, 56(1):102–120.Google Scholar

  • Armstrong, Elizabeth A. and Suzanna M. Crage (2006) “Movements and Memory: The Making of the Stonewall Myth,” American Sociological Review, 71(5):724–751.Google Scholar

  • Association homophile de Montréal (L’) (1974) Mémoire [sur le projet de loi no 50], 6M. Montréal: Association homophile de Montréal.Google Scholar

  • Association pour les droits des gai(e)s du Québec (ADGQ) (1977) “La minorité homosexuelle au Québec et La Charte des droits et libertés de la personne.” Mémoire présenté à Marc-André Bédard, ministre de la Justice et à la Commission des droits de la personne. Montréal: ADGQ.Google Scholar

  • Bernstein, Mary (2003) “Nothing Ventured, Nothing Gained? Conceptualizing Social Movement “Success” in the Lesbian and Gay Movement,” Sociological Perspectives, 46(3):353–379.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bernstein, Mary, Anna-Maria Marshall and Scott Barclay (2009) “The Challenge of Law: Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Social Movements.” In: (Scott Barclay, Mary Bernstein and Anna-Maria Marshall, eds.) Queer Mobilizations: LGBT Activists Confront the Law. New York: New York University Press, pp. 1–17.Google Scholar

  • Brickell, Chris (2005) “The Transformation of Heterosexism and its Paradoxes.” In: (Chrys Ingraham, ed.) Thinking Straight: The Power, Promise and Paradox of Heterosexuality. New York: Routledge, pp. 85–106.Google Scholar

  • Bureau, Marie-France and Jacques Papy (2006) “L’orientation sexuelle et la Charte des droits et libertés de la personne: récit d’une trajectoire,” Revue du Barreau du Québec, Numéro hors série “La Charte québécoise: origines, enjeux et perspectives,” 109–141.Google Scholar

  • Burstein, Paul, Rachel L. Einwohner and Jocelyn A. Hollander (1995) “Success of Political Movements: A Bargaining Perspective.” In: (J. Craig Jenkins and Bert Klandermans, eds.) The Politics of Social Protest: Comparative Perspectives on State and Social Movements. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 275–295.Google Scholar

  • Centre homophile urbain de Montréal (CHUM) (1975) Mémoire du Centre homophile urbain de Montréal sur le projet de loi no 50, 22M. Montréal: Centre homophile urbain de Montréal.Google Scholar

  • Chambers, Stuart (2010) “Pierre Elliott Trudeau and Bill C-150: A Rational Approach to Homosexual Acts, 1968–1969,” Journal of Homosexuality, 57(2):249–266.Google Scholar

  • Charmaz, Kathy (2006) Constructing Grounded Theory: Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar

  • Commission des droits de la personne du Québec (CDPQ) (1977) “L’orientation sexuelle dans la Charte des droits et libertés de la personne du Québec.” Communiqué de la CDPQ, diffusé le 27 octobre.Google Scholar

  • Commission des droits de la personne du Québec (CDPQ) (1994) De l’illégalité à l’égalité. Rapport de la consultation publique sur la violence et la discrimination envers les gais et lesbiennes. Montréal/Québec: La Commission.Google Scholar

  • Conseil exécutif (1977) Fonds E5, conseil exécutif. Mémoire des délibérations du conseil exécutif, séance du 30 novembre 1977 et Mémoire au conseil des ministres, de Me Marc-André Bédard, ministre de la Justice. Objet: Loi modifiant la charte québécoise des droits et libertés de la personne, le 21 novembre 1977. Québec: Centre d’archives de Québec.Google Scholar

  • Corriveau, Patrice (2006) La répression des homosexuels au Québec et en France. Du bûcher à la mairie. Québec: Septentrion.Google Scholar

  • Earl, Jennifer (2003) “Tanks, Tear Gas, and Taxes: Toward a Theory of Movement Repression,” Sociological Theory, 21(1):44–68.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Earl, Jennifer (2011) “Political Repression: Iron Fists, Velvet Gloves, and Diffuse Control,” Annual Review of Sociology, 37:261–284.Google Scholar

  • Edwards, Bob and John D. McCarthy (2004) “Resources and Social Movement Mobilization.” In: (David A. Snow, Sarah Anne Soule and Hanspeter Kriesi, eds.) The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 116–152.Google Scholar

  • Egan c. Canada, [1995] 2 SCR 513.Google Scholar

  • Farney, James (2012) Social Conservatives and Party Politics in Canada and the United States. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar

  • Fetner, Tina (2008) How the Religious Right Shaped Lesbian and Gay Activism. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press.Google Scholar

  • Gamson, William A. (1975) The Strategy of Social Protest. Homewood: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar

  • Gamson, William A. (2004) “Bystanders, Public Opinion, and the Media.” In: (David A. Snow, Sarah Anne Soule and Hanspeter Kriesi, eds.) The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. pp. 242–261.Google Scholar

  • Gurney, Joan Neff and Kathleen J. Tierney (1982) “Relative Deprivation and Social Movements: A Critical Look at Twenty Years of Theory and Research,” Sociological Quarterly, 23(1):33–47.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Habermas, Jürgen (1981) “New Social Movements,” Telos, 49(1):33–37.Google Scholar

  • Hall, Peter and Rosemary Taylor (1997) “La science Politique et Les Trois Néo-Institutionnalismes,” Revue Française De Science Politique, 47(5):469–496.Google Scholar

  • Hekma, Gert and Jan Willem Duyvendak (2011) “The Netherlands: Depoliticization of Homosexuality and Homosexualition of Politics.” In: (Manon Tremblay, David Paternotte and Carol Johnson, eds.) The Lesbian and Gay Movement and the State: Comparative Insights into a Transformed Relationship. Farnham (Surrey): Ashgate, pp. 103–117.Google Scholar

  • Herman, Didi (1994) “The Christian Right and the Politics of Morality in Canada,” Parliamentary Affairs, 47(2):268–279.Google Scholar

  • Higgins, Ross (1999) De la Clandestinité Á L’affirmation. Pour une Histoire de la Communauté Gaie Montréalaise. Montréal: Comeau & Nadeau.Google Scholar

  • Jackson, Ed and Stan Persky (Eds) (1982) Flaunting It! A decade of gay journalism from The Body Politic. An anthology. Vancouver/Toronto: New Star Books/Pink Triangle Press.Google Scholar

  • Jenkins, J. Craig (1983) “Resource Mobilization Theory and the Study of Social Movements,” Annual Review of Sociology, 9:527–553.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kinsman, Gary (1987) The Regulation of Desire. Sexuality in Canada. Montréal/New York: Black Rose Books.Google Scholar

  • Kinsman, Gary and Patrizia Gentile (2010) The Canadian War on Queers. National Security as Sexual Regulation. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar

  • Knegt, Peter (2011) About Canada. Queer Rights. Halifax/Winnipeg: Fernwood Publishing.Google Scholar

  • Lamoureux, Diane (1998) “La Question Lesbienne Dans le Féminisme Montréalais: Un Chassé-croisé.” In: (Iréne Demczuk and Frank W. Remiggi, eds.) Sortir de l’ombre. Histoires des communautés lesbienne et gaie de Montréal. Montréal: VLB éditeur, pp. 167–185.Google Scholar

  • McAdam, Doug, John D. McCarthy and Mayer N. Zald (1988) “Social Movements.” In: (Neil J. Smelser, ed.) Handbook of Sociology. Newbury Park: Sage, pp. 695–737.Google Scholar

  • McAdam, Doug, John D. McCarthy and Mayer N. Zald (1996) “Introduction.” In Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements. Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–20.Google Scholar

  • McCarthy, John D. and Mayer N. Zald (1977) “Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory,” American Journal of Sociology, 82(6):1212–1241.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • McLeod, Donald W. (1996) Lesbian and Gay Liberation in Canada. A Selected Annotated Chronology, 1964–1975. Toronto: ECW Press/Homewood Books.Google Scholar

  • Mepschen, Paul and Jan Willem Duyvendak (2012) “European Sexual Nationalisms: The Culturalization of Citizenship and the Sexual Politics of Belonging and Exclusion,” Perspectives on Europe, 42(1):70–76.Google Scholar

  • Montigny, Éric (2012) “Le Parti Québécois: Vers une’Dédémocratisation’?”. In: (Réjean Pelletier, ed.) Les partis politiques québécois dans la tourmente. Mieux comprendre et évaluer leur rôle. Québec: Presses de l’Université Laval, pp. 273–300.Google Scholar

  • Montréal Gay Association, Montréal Gay Woman/Centre humanitaire d’aide et de libération (C.H.A.L. Inc.) (1974) Mémoire [sur le projet de loi no 50], 16M. Montréal and Québec: Montréal Gay Association, Montréal Gay Woman/Centre humanitaire d’aide et de libération (C.H.A.L. Inc.).Google Scholar

  • Mottl, Tahi L. (1980) “The Analysis of Countermovements,” Social Problems, 27(5):620–635.Google Scholar

  • Parti québécois (1975) Le programme. L’action politique. Les statuts et réglements. Montréal: Parti québécois.Google Scholar

  • Pasteur, Claude (1999) Le beau vice ou les homosexuels à la Cour de France. Paris: Balland.Google Scholar

  • Paternotte, David, Manon Tremblay and Carol Johnson (Eds) (2011) “Conclusion.” In The Lesbian and Gay Movement and the State. Comparative Insights into a Transformed Relationship. Abingdon: Ashgate, pp. 213–227.Google Scholar

  • Plant, Richard (1986) The Pink Triangle. The Nazi War Against Homosexuals. New York: Holt.Google Scholar

  • Podmore, Julie (2006) “Gone ‘Underground’? Lesbian Visibility and the Consolidation of Queer Space in Montréal,” Social & Cultural Geography, 7(4):595–625.Google Scholar

  • Puar, Jasbir K. (2012) Homonationalisme. La politique queer aprés le 11 septembre 2001. Paris: Éditions Amsterdam.Google Scholar

  • Québec, Assemblée nationale (1975a) Journal des débats. Commissions parlementaires. Commission permanente de la justice. Projet de loi no 50 – Charte des droits et libertés de la personne. Troisième session – 30e législature. No 153, 25 juin.Google Scholar

  • Québec, Assemblée nationale (1975b) Journal des débats. Commissions parlementaires. Commission permanente de la justice. Étude du projet de loi no 50 – Loi concernant les droits et les libertés de la personne. Troisième session – 30e législature. No 8, 23 janvier.Google Scholar

  • Québec, Assemblée nationale (1975c) Projet de loi no 50. Charte des droits et libertés de la personne. Troisième session – 30e législature, première lecture. Québec: L’Éditeur officiel du Québec Charles-Henri Dubé.Google Scholar

  • Québec, Assemblée nationale (1977a) Journal des débats. Deuxième session – 31e législature. Vol. 19. No 128. 7 décembre.Google Scholar

  • Québec, Assemblée nationale (1977b) Journal des débats. Deuxième session – 31e législature. Vol. 19. No 133. 15 décembre.Google Scholar

  • Rayside, David (1988) “Gay Rights and Family Values: The Passage of Bill 7 in Ontario,” Studies in Political Economy, 26 Summer, 109–147.Google Scholar

  • Rayside, David (1998) On the Fringe. Gays and Lesbians in Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar

  • Rayside, David (2008) Queer Inclusions, Continental Divisions. Public Recognition of Sexual Diversity in Canada and the United States. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar

  • Shareck, Olivier (2003) Évolution de l’opinion publique face à la reconnaissance des droits des gais et des lesbiennes au Québec telle que vue dans les journaux montréalais et dans les sondages 1967–1994. Thèse de maîtrise. Université du Québec à Montréal, Département d’histoire.Google Scholar

  • Smith, Miriam (1998) “Nationalisme et politiques des mouvements sociaux: les droits des gais et lesbiennes et l’incidence de la Charte canadienne au Québec,” Politique et Sociétés, 17(3):113–140.Google Scholar

  • Smith, Miriam (1999) Lesbian and Gay Rights in Canada. Social Movements and Equality-Seeking, 1971–1995. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar

  • Smith, Miriam (2004) “Questioning Heteronormativity: Lesbian and Gay Challenges to Education Practice in British Columbia, Canada,” Social Movement Studies, 3(2):131–145.Google Scholar

  • Smith, Miriam (2008) Political Institutions and Lesbian and Gay Rights in the United States and Canada. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

  • Smith, Miriam (2010) “Federalism and LGBT Rights in the US and Canada: A Comparative Analysis.” In: (Melissa Haussman, Marian Sawer and Jill Vickers, eds.) Federalism, Feminism and Multilevel Governance. Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 97–109.Google Scholar

  • Smith, Miriam (2011) “Canada: The Power of Institutions.” In: (Manon Tremblay, David Paternotte and Carol Johnson, eds.) The Lesbian and Gay Movement and the State. Comparative Insights into a Transformed Relationship. Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 73–87.Google Scholar

  • Snow, David A. (2004) “Framing Processes, Ideology, and Discursive Fields.” In: (David A. Snow, Sarah Anne Soule and Hanspeter Kriesi, eds.) The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 380–412.Google Scholar

  • Staggenborg, Suzanne (1995) “Can Feminist Organizations Be Effective?.” In: (Mira Marx Ferree and Patricia Yancey Martin, eds.) Feminist Organizations: Harvest of the New Women’s Movement. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, pp. 339–355.Google Scholar

  • Staggenborg, Suzanne (2012) Social Movements. Second Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Stychin, Carl F. (1997) “Queer Nations: Nationalism, Sexuality and the Discourse of Rights in Québec,” Feminist Legal Studies, 5(1):3–34.Google Scholar

  • Tarrow, Sidney (1994) Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics. Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Waaldijk, Kees (2000) “Civil Developments: Patterns of Reform in the Legal Position of Same-Sex Partners in Europe,” Canadian Journal of Family Law, 17(1):62–88.Google Scholar

  • Warner, Tom (1991) “Introduction: Fear of a Queer Planet,” Social Text, 29:3–17.Google Scholar

  • Warner, Tom (2002) Never Going Back. A History of Queer Activism in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar

  • Warner, Tom (2010) Losing Control. Canada’s Social Conservatives in the Age of Rights. Toronto: Between the Lines.Google Scholar

About the article

Corresponding author: Manon Tremblay, Professor, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ottawa, School of Political Studies, 120 University Street, room 7071, Ottawa ON, Canada K1N 6N5, e-mail:


Published Online: 2015-04-22

Published in Print: 2015-04-01


Citation Information: World Political Science, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 47–73, ISSN (Online) 2363-4782, ISSN (Print) 2363-4774, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/wps-2015-0005.

Export Citation

©2015 by De Gruyter.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in