Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Zeitschrift für Soziologie

Ed. by Auspurg, Katrin / Kalthoff, Herbert / Kurz, Karin / Schnabel, Annette / Schützeichel, Rainer


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0.633
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.833

CiteScore 2018: 0.75

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.515
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.781

Online
ISSN
2366-0325
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 48, Issue 4

Issues

The Institutional Dimension of Class-based Educational Decision-making: Evidence from Regional Variation in Switzerland

Institutionelle Dimensionen klassenbasierter Bildungsentscheidungen: Der Effekt regionaler Unterschiede in der Schweiz

Benita Combet
  • Corresponding author
  • Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Institut für Soziologie Konradstrasse 6, 80801 München München Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2019-11-29 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/zfsoz-2019-0021

Abstract

This article examines to what extent the specific institutional arrangement of an education system moderates the influence of social background on students’ track allocation, and whether this happens via primary or secondary effects of social origin. I tackle the problem of omitted-variable bias by analyzing subnational education systems in Switzerland, a country with a variety of cantonal school systems but otherwise homogeneous institutions. The results show a complex picture. First, even though the absolute transition probability to the highest track is higher in education systems with low stratification for students of higher social background, this does not translate into a relative advantage as in most cantons the odds of transitioning do not differ between high and low social background students. Second, in line with previous research, I observe that the secondary effect of social origin prevails in more stratified education systems. Third, it is not possible to conclude with certainty that specific features of the education system enable high social background parents to disproportionately influence their children’s transition probabilities because the results are not robust.

Zusammenfassung

Dieser Artikel untersucht inwiefern die institutionelle Ausgestaltung des Bildungssystems den Einfluss der sozialen Schicht auf die Übertrittschancen in den leistungsstärksten Schultrack moderiert und wieweit dies über den primären oder den sekundären Herkunftseffekt geschieht. Das Problem des omitted variable bias bei Ländervergleichen wird mittels eines Vergleichs von subnationalen Bildungssystemen entschärft. Die Schweiz ist dafür besonders geeignet aufgrund einer großen Varietät von Bildungssystemen bei gleichzeitig ähnlichen sozialstaatlichen Institutionen. Die Resultate zeichnen ein komplexes Bild: Obwohl erstens die absolute Übertrittswahrscheinlichkeit für Kinder aus höherer Schicht in weniger stratifizierten Bildungssystemen grösser ist, führt dies nicht zwingend zu einem relativen Vorteil, da sich die Übertrittschancen zwischen den Schichten nicht signifikant unterscheiden. Zweitens lässt sich der Befund aus früherer Forschung, dass in stärker stratifizierten Bildungssystemen der sekundäre Herkunftseffekt größer ist, replizieren. Drittens ist es nicht möglich festzustellen, ob gewisse Institutionen im Bildungssystem für Kinder aus höherer Schicht vorteilhaft sind, da die Resultate nicht robust sind.

This article offers supplementary material which is provided at the end of the article.

Keywords: Educational Decision-Making; Primary Effect of Social Origin; Secondary Effect of Social Origin; Education System; Tracking; Switzerland

Schlagwörter: Bildungsentscheidungen; primärer Herkunftseffekt; sekundärer Herkunftseffekt; Schulsystem; Tracking; Schweiz

The research data are stored in the GESIS data archive under the following signature: https://dx.doi.org/10.7802/1921

6References

  • Adnett, N. & P. Davies, 2002: Education as a Positional Good. Implication for Market-based Reforms of State Schooling. British Journal for Educational Studies 50: 189–205.Google Scholar

  • Allmendinger, J., 1989: Educational Systems and Labor Market Outcomes. European Sociological Review 5: 231–250.Google Scholar

  • Ammermüller, A., 2013: Institutional Features of Schooling Systems and Educational Inequality. Cross-Country Evidence from PIRLS and PISA. German Economic Review 14: 190–213.Google Scholar

  • Bauer, P. & R.T. Riphahn, 2006: Timing of School Tracking as a Determinant of Intergenerational Transmission of Education. Economic Letters 91: 90–97.Google Scholar

  • Belsky, D.W. et al., 2018: Genetic Analysis of Social-Class Mobility in Five Longitudinal Studies. PNAS, 115 (31): E7275–E7284.Google Scholar

  • Berger, J. & B. Combet, 2017: Late School Tracking, Less Class-Bias in Educational Decision-Making? The Uncertainty Reduction-Mechanism and Its Experimental Test. European Sociological Review 33: 124–136Google Scholar

  • Betts, J.R., 2011: The Economics of Tracking in Education. S. 341–381 in: E.A. Hanushek, S. Macchin & L. Woesmann (Hrsg.), Handbook of the Economics of Education, Vol. 3. Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar

  • Boone, S. & M. Van Houtte, 2013: Why are Teacher Recommendations at the Transition from Primary to Secondary Education Socially Biased? A Mixed-Methods Research. British Journal of Sociology of Education 34: 1–19.Google Scholar

  • Boudon, R., 1974: Education, Opportunity, and Social Inequality. Changing Prospects in Western Societies. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar

  • Boudon, R., 1982: The Unintended Consequences of Social Action. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar

  • Bourdieu, P. & J.-C. Passeron, 1977: Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture. London: Sage.Google Scholar

  • Breen, R. & J.H. Goldthorpe, 1997: Explaining Educational Differentials. Towards a Formal Rational Action Theory. Rationality and Society 9: 275–305.Google Scholar

  • Breen, R. & J.O. Jonsson, 2000: Analyzing Educational Careers: A Multinomial Transition Model. American Sociological Review 65: 754–772.Google Scholar

  • Brunello, G. & D. Checchi, 2007: Does School Tracking Affect Equality of Opportunity? New International Evidence. Economic Policy 22: 781–861.Google Scholar

  • Bryan, M.L. & S. P. Jenkins, 2016: Multilevel Modelling of Country Effects. A Cautionary Tale. European Sociological Review 32: 3–22.Google Scholar

  • Buchmann, C., D.J. Condron & V.J. Roscigno, 2010: Shadow Education, American Style. Test Preparation, the SAT and College Enrollment. Social Forces 89: 435–462.Google Scholar

  • Bütler, D., 2016: Elternarbeit: Es schwelt. BildungSchweiz 4: 26–27.Google Scholar

  • Clarke, P., C. Crawford, F. Steele & A. Vignoles, 2015: Revisiting Fixed- and Random-Effects Models. Some Considerations for Policy-relevant Education Research. Education Economics 23: 259–277.Google Scholar

  • Combet, B., 2013: Zum Einfluss von primären und sekundären Effekten der sozialen Herkunft beim zweiten schulischen Übergang in der Schweiz. Ein Vergleich unterschiedlicher Dekompositions- und Operationalisierungsmethoden. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Bildungsforschung 35: 447–471.Google Scholar

  • Diem, A. & S.C. Wolter, 2013: Who is Afraid of School Choice? Swiss Journal of Sociology 39: 57–80.Google Scholar

  • Dollmann, J., 2016: Less Choice, Less Inequality? A Natural Experiment on Social and Ethnic Differences in Educational Decision-Making. European Sociological Review 32: 203–215.Google Scholar

  • Dusek, J.B. & G. Joseph, 1983: The Bases of Teacher Expectancies. A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Education Psychology 75: 327–346.Google Scholar

  • EDK, 1970: Konkordat über die Schulkoordination, October 29, 1970. http://edudoc.ch/record/1987/files/1-1d.pdf/ Accessed 20.12.2015.

  • EDK, 1995: Kantonale Schulsysteme der Schweiz. December 1995. http://edudoc.ch/record/87975?ln=en/ Accessed 20.12.2015.

  • EDK, 2007: Übertritt Primarstufe – Sekundarstufe I.Google Scholar

  • Fokken, S., 2016: Eltern verklagen Lehrer: Es kommt zu unglaublichen Exzessen. Spiegel Online,Google Scholar

  • FORS Swiss Center in the Expertise of Social Science, 2017: Information on the PISA Surveys. https://forsbase.unil.ch/ Accessed May 24, 2017.

  • Gamoran, A., 1992: The Variable Effects of High School Tracking. American Sociological Review 57: 812–828.Google Scholar

  • Ganzeboom, H.B.G., P.M. De Graaf & D.J. Treiman, 1992: A Standard International Socio-Economicindex of Occupational Status. Social Science Research 21: 1–56.Google Scholar

  • Goldthorpe, J.H., 2000: On Sociology. Numbers, Narratives, and the Integration of Research and Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Gresch, C., J. Baumert & K. Maaz, 2009: Empfehlungsstatus, Übergangsempfehlung und der Wechsel in die Sekundarstufe I: Bildungsentscheidungen und soziale Ungleichheit. S. 230–256 in: J. Baumert, K. Maaz & U. Trautwein (Hrsg.), Bildungsentscheidungen (Sonderheft 12 der Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft). Wiesbaden: VS.Google Scholar

  • Hega, G.M., 2000: Federalism, Subsidiarity and Education Policy in Switzerland. Regional & Federal Studies 10: 1–35.Google Scholar

  • Heisig, J.P., M. Schaeffer & J. Giesecke, 2017: The Costs of Simplicity. Why Multilevel Models May Benefit from Accounting for Cross-Cluster Differences in the Effects of Controls. American Sociological Review 82: 796–827.Google Scholar

  • Hof, S. & S.C. Wolter, 2012: Nachhilfe. Bezahlte ausserschulische Lernunterstützung in der Schweiz. SKBF Staff Paper 8. (http://www.skbf-csre.ch/fileadmin/files/pdf/publikationen/Staffpaper8.pdf/ Accessed December 5, 2015

  • Horn, D., 2009: Age of Selection Counts. A Cross-Country Analysis of Educational Institutions. Educational Research and Evaluation 15: 343–366.Google Scholar

  • Horn, D., 2013: Diverging Performances: the Detrimental Effects of Early Educational Selection on Equality of Opportunity in Hungary. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 32: 25–43.Google Scholar

  • Jackson, M., 2013: Determined to Succeed? Performance versus Choice in Educational Attainment. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Jackson, M. & J.O. Jonsson, 2013: Inequality of Opportunity across Countries. s. 306–337 in: M. Jackson (Hrsg.), Determined to Succeed? Performance versus Choice in Educational Attainment. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Jann, B., 2007a: Making Regression Tables Simplified. The Stata Journal 7: 227–244.Google Scholar

  • Jann, B., 2007b: FRE: Stata Module to Display One-Way Frequency Table. Statistical Software Components S456835, Boston College Department of Economics, revised June 3, 2015.Google Scholar

  • Jann, B., 2014: Plotting Regression Coefficients and Other Estimates. The Stata Journal 14: 708–737.Google Scholar

  • Jann, B. 2018a: Customizing Stata Graphs Made Easy (part 1). The Stata Journal 18: 491–502.Google Scholar

  • Jann, B. 2018b: Customizing Stata Graphs Made Easy (part 2). The Stata Journal 18: 786–802.Google Scholar

  • Jonsson, J.O. & F. Rudolphi, 2011: Weak Performance – Strong Determination: School Achievement and Educational Choice Among Children of Immigrants in Sweden. European Sociological Review 27: 487–508.Google Scholar

  • Karlson, K. B., A. Holm & R. Breen, 2011: Comparing Regression Coefficients Between Same-sample Nested Models using Logit and Probit. A New Method. Sociological Methodology 42: 286–313.Google Scholar

  • Kahneman, D. & A. Tversky, 1979: Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk. Econometrica 47: 263–292.Google Scholar

  • Kohler, U., K.B. Karlson & A. Holm, 2011: Comparing Coefficients of Nested Nonlinear Probability Models. The Stata Journal 11: 420–438.Google Scholar

  • Kröger, H. & J. Skopek, 2017: Logistic Confusion – An Extended Treatment on Cross-Group Comparability of Findings Obtained from Logistic Regression. Working Paper, April 2017.Google Scholar

  • Lane, J.-E., 2001: Introduction. Switzerland and its Institutions and Behavioural Outcomes. West European Politics 24: 1–18.Google Scholar

  • Le Donné, N., 2014: European Variations in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Students’ Cognitive Achievement. The Role of Educational Policies. European Sociological Review 30: 329–343.Google Scholar

  • Lohmann, H. & O. Groh-Samberg, 2010: Akzeptanz von Grundschulempfehlungen und Auswirkungen auf den weiteren Bildungsverlauf. Zeitschrift für Soziologie 39: 470–492.Google Scholar

  • Mare, R.D., 1980: Social Background and School Continuation Decisions. Journal of the American Statistical Association 75: 295–305.Google Scholar

  • Neuenschwander, M., 2007: Bedingungen und Anpassungsprozesse bei erwartungswidrigen Bildungsverläufen. S. 83–104 in: T. Eckert (Hrsg.), Übergänge im Bildungswesen. Münster: Waxmann.Google Scholar

  • Neugebauer, M., 2010: Bildungsungleichheit und Grundschulempfehlung beim Übergang auf das Gymnasium. Eine Dekomposition primärer und sekundärer Herkunftseffekte. Zeitschrift für Soziologie 39: 202–214.Google Scholar

  • Oehlert, G.W., 1992: A Note on the Delta Method. The American Statistician 46: 27–29.Google Scholar

  • Pfeffer, F., 2008: Persistent Inequality in Educational Attainment and its Institutional Context. European Sociological Review 24: 543–565.Google Scholar

  • Ramseier, E. et al., 1995: Schule, Leistung und Persönlichkeit: TIMSS+. http://forsdata.unil.ch/fw_query_fors/jd-result-2-det.fwx?lang=d&htm.sel0=1224/ Accessed April 7, 2015.

  • Ready, D.D. & D.L. Wright, 2011: Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Teachers’ Perceptions of Young Children’s Cognitive Abilities. The Role of Child Background and Classroom Context. American Educational Research Journal 48: 335–360.Google Scholar

  • Regli, F. & H. Furer, 1996: Schulsysteme der Schweiz. Eine tabellarische Übersicht des Bildungswesens in der Schweiz. 2. Auflage. Basel: Cratander AG.Google Scholar

  • Schütz, G., H.W. Ursprung & L. Woessmann, 2008: Education Policy and Equality of Opportunity. Kyklos 61: 279–308.Google Scholar

  • Simon, V., 2016: Lehrer im Visier der Anwälte. Tagesanzeiger, August 5, 2016. http://www.tagesanzeiger.ch/zuerich/region/lehrer-zunehmend-unter-druck/story/18165472 / Accessed: August 5, 2016.

  • Stadelmann-Steffen, I., 2012: Education Policy and Educational Inequality. Evidence from the Swiss Laboratory. European Sociological Review 28: 379–393.Google Scholar

  • Stevenson, D.L. & D.P. Baker, 1992: Shadow Education and Allocation in Formal Schooling. Transition to University in Japan. American Journal of Sociology 97: 1639–1657.Google Scholar

  • Streckeisen, U., D. Hänzi & A. Hungerbühler, 2007: Fördern und Auslesen. Deutungsmuster von Lehrpersonen zu einem beruflichen Dilemma. Wiesbaden: VS.Google Scholar

  • Swiss Statistics, 2016: Income, Consumption and Wealth – Data, Indicators. Household income and expenditure 2013. http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/en/index/themen/20/02/blank/key/einkommen0/niveau.htm/ Accessed June 14, 2016.

  • Van de Werfhorst, H.G. & J.J.B. Mijs, 2010: Achievement Inequality and the Institutional Structure of Educational systems. A Comparative Perspective. Annual Review of Sociology 36: 407–428.Google Scholar

  • Waldinger, F., 2007: Does Ability Tracking Exacerbate the Role of Background for Students’ Test Scores? Working Paper. http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/economics/staff/ffwaldinger/research/ability_tracking.pdf/ Accessed October 30, 2017.

  • Zahner Rossier, C. et al., 2004: PISA Bericht 2003. Kompetenzen für die Zukunft. Erster nationaler Bericht. Bildungsmonitoring Schweiz. BFS/EDK.Google Scholar

About the article

Benita Combet

Benita Combet is a SNF fellowship holder and works at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich. Her research focuses on identifying the mechanisms explaining educational inequality and gender inequality in the labour market and has been published in the European Sociological Review and the Swiss Journal of Sociology.


Published Online: 2019-11-29

Published in Print: 2019-10-01


Citation Information: Zeitschrift für Soziologie, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 301–320, ISSN (Online) 2366-0325, ISSN (Print) 0340-1804, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/zfsoz-2019-0021.

Export Citation

© 2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Supplementary Article Materials

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in