Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie

The German Journal of Economic Geography

Editor-in-Chief: Henn, Sebastian / Thomi, Walter


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.276
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.000

CiteScore 2017: 1.09

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.263
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.567

Online
ISSN
2365-7693
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 60, Issue 3

Issues

Vietnam 30 years after Doi Moi: achievements and challenges

Javier Revilla Diez
  • Corresponding author
  • Javier Revilla Diez, Geographisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Albertus-Magnus-Platz, 50923 Köln, Germany
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-10-24 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/zfw-2016-0035

Abstract:

Thirty years ago, the Vietnamese government was forced to change its economic policy. The inefficiencies of the economic system led to deteriorating living conditions in the 1980s. During the 6th party congress in December 1986, the communist party decided to reform the economic system, called Doi Moi (renovation). The political elite opted for a gradual change of the economy, without changing the political system. The economic development induced by the reforms was remarkable. The living conditions of the Vietnamese have improved drastically as a consequence of high growth rates. Despite economic and social success since the introduction of reforms, Vietnam has reached now a distinctive moment. The country has to tackle five challenges in order to enhance the future welfare of its citizens. Firstly, macroeconomic stability and especially a functioning financial market is a precondition for future economic growth. Secondly, the successful catch-up model based on cheap labour as well as mineral and agricultural resources is reaching its limitations. Thirdly, a stronger spatial perspective has to be taken into account as the economic development is unevenly distributed and leaving the rural areas behind. Fourthly, environmental issues need to be considered more seriously, especially pollution from intensified agricultural production, mining, and industrialization. Fifthly, due to increasing income disparities, more attention has to be paid to social justice and participation.

Keywords: : achievements; challenges; transition economy; Vietnam.

References

  • ADB (Asian Development Bank) (2005): Private sector assessment in Vietnam. Mandaluyong City. Google Scholar

  • ADB (Asian Development Bank) (2013): Viet Nam. Environment and climate change assessment. (Internet: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/institutional-document/33916/files/viet-nam-environment-climate-change.pdf) Google Scholar

  • Anh, P./Kroeze, C./Bush, S./Mol, A. (2010): Water pollution by intensive brackish shrimp farming in south-east Vietnam: causes and options for control. In: Agricultural Water Management, 97, 872–882. CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Bertelsmann Stiftung, BTI (2016): Vietnam Country Report. Gütersloh. Google Scholar

  • Berthold D. (2006): Development of the Private Sector and State-Owned Enterprises in Vietnam. Political Economy of Southeast Asia. Unpublished. Google Scholar

  • Blacksmith Institute (2011): The World’s Worst Toxic Pollution Problems. Report. (Internet: http://worstpolluted.org/docs/TopTen2011.pdf) Google Scholar

  • Bloomberg (2015): Investing In Vietnam: What Makes It so Attractive? December 4, 2015. (Internet: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/videos/2015-12-04/investing-in-vietnam-what-makes-it-so-attractive-) Google Scholar

  • Boston Consulting Group (2014): Vietnam and Myanmar: Southeast Asia’s New Growth Frontiers, December 17, 2013. (https://www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/consumer_insight_growth_vietnam_myanmar_southeast_asia_new_growth_frontier/) Google Scholar

  • Brünjes, J./Revilla Diez, J. (2016): Obtaining non-farm wage employment in rural Vietnam. Asia Pacific Viewpoint. 57 (2), 263–279. Google Scholar

  • Brünjes, J./Revilla Diez, J. (2013a): ‘Recession push’ and ‘prosperity pull’ entrepreneurship in a rural developing context. In: Entrepreneurship & Regional Development 25(3–4): 251–271 Google Scholar

  • Brünjes, J./Revilla Diez, J. (2013b): Non-farm businesses in rural areas: response to crisis or exploiting opportunities? Evidence from Vietnam. In: Tamásy, C.; Revilla Diez, J.; (Hrsg.): Regional Resilience, Economy and Society: Globalising Rural Places. Aldershot: Ashgate, 115–130 Google Scholar

  • Bündnis Entwicklung Hilft and United Nations University – Insitute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS) (2015): Weltrisikobericht 2015. (Internet: http://weltrisikobericht.de/) Google Scholar

  • Dapice, D. (2006): Fear of Flying: Why is sustaining reform so hard for Vietnam? Paper presented at the 4th High Level Roundtable Meeting – Assistance to the 20-year Review of Doi Moi in Vietnam Project, Hanoi. Unpublished. Google Scholar

  • Dunning, J.H. (2005): Institutional reform, FDI and European transition economies. In: Grosse R (Hrsg): International Business and Governments in the 21st Century, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 49–78 Google Scholar

  • Fforde, A. (2016): Vietnam: economic strategy and economic reality. Draft prepared for the Vietnam Forum 2016 – Vietnam: Thirty years of Doi Moi and beyond. Singapore. Unpublished. Google Scholar

  • Future Society (2007): Long term consequences of the Vietnam War. Report to the Environmental Conference on Cambodia, Laos, Vietna. (Internet: www.nnn.se/environ/ecology.pdf). Google Scholar

  • Germanwatch (2016): Global Climate Risk Index (2016 – )Who Suffers Most From Extreme Weather Events? Weather-related Loss Events in 2014 and 1995 to 2014. (Internet: www.germanwatch.org/en/cri) Google Scholar

  • Hakkala, K./Kokko, A. (2007): The state and private sector in Vietnam. Working paper 236. Unpublished. Google Scholar

  • Hoan Le, D. (2003): Environmental issues in mining sector of Vietnam and application of the environmental management system. www.iaia.org/pdf/ConferenceDocuments. Google Scholar

  • Hoan, X.T./, Truong, T. A./Dinh, T. T. P. (2013): Urban poverty in Vietnam – a view from complementary assessments. HUMAN SETTLEMENTS WORKING PAPER SERIES POVERTY REDUCTION IN URBAN AREAS –40. Internet: http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/10633IIED.pdf, 17.8.16 Google Scholar

  • Ives, M. (2013): In Mekong Delta, Rice Boom Has Steep Environmental Cost. Yale Environment 360. (Internet: http://e360.yale.edu/feature/in_mekong_delta_rice_boom_has_steep_environmental_cost/2670/) Google Scholar

  • IMF (International Monetary Fund) (2016): IMF Executive Board Concludes 2016 Article IV Consultation with Vietnam. Press Release No. 16/307, 27.6.2016. (Internet: https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2016/07/06/13/45/PR16307-Vietnam-IMF-Executive-Board-Concludes-2016-Article-IV-Consultation) Google Scholar

  • International Trade Administration (2016): Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Partial Rescission of Review 2014–2015, March 10, 2016 (Internet: http://enforcement.trade.gov/frn/summary/vietnam/2016–05406.txt) Google Scholar

  • Junge, V./Revilla Diez, J./Schätzl, L. (2015): Determinants and Consequences of Internal Return Migration in Thailand and Vietnam. In: World Development 71(C), 94–106. Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Le, H./Cabalu, H./Salim, R. (2014): Winners and losers in Vietnam equalization programs. In: Journal of Policy Modeling, (36) 1, 172–184. Google Scholar

  • Le Dang Hoan-Vietnam-Korea Environmental Industry Co-operation Center: Environmental issues in mining sector of Vietnam and application of the environmental management system. Unpublished. Google Scholar

  • Lopez-Acevedo, G./Robertson, R. (Hrsg.) (2012): Sewing Success: Employment and wages following the end of the multi-fibre arrangement. Washington, DC. Google Scholar

  • Lukyanets, A.S./Nguen, T. K./Ryazantsev, S. V./Tikunov, V. S./Pham, H. H.(2015): Influence of climatic changes on population migrationin Vietnam. In: Geography and Natural Resources, (36) 3, 314. Google Scholar

  • Malesky, E. (2011). The Vietnam Provincial Competitiveness Index: Measuring Economic Governance for Business Development. 2011 Final Report. USAID/VNCI Policy Paper. Ha Noi. Google Scholar

  • Malesky, E./London, J. (2014): The political economy of development in China and Vietnam. In: Annual Review of Political Science, (17)1, 395–419. CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • McKinsey Global Institute (2012): Sustaining Vietnam’s growth: The productivity challenge. Google Scholar

  • Murrell, P. (2008): Institutions and firms in transition economies. In: Menard, C./Shirley, M.(Hrsg.): Handbook of New Institutional Economics. Berlin Heidelberg, 667–699. Google Scholar

  • Nguyen Xuan, T./Revilla Diez, J. (2016): Industrieller Strukturwandel im Roten-Fluss-Delta seit Doi Moi. Geographische Rundschau 68 (7–8), 30–35. Google Scholar

  • Ni, B./Tamechika, H./Otsuki, T./Honda, K. (2016): Does ISO14001 raise firms’ awareness of environmental protection?—Case from Vietnam. Discussion Papers In Economics And Business, Discussion Paper 16–05, 4. Google Scholar

  • Peltier, C. (2016): Vietnam: rapid industrial expansion contrasts with still major macroeconomic fragilities. In: BNP Paribas. Conjouncture June 2016. (Internet: http://economic-research.bnpparibas.com/Views/DisplayPublication.aspx?type=document&IdPdf=28916) Google Scholar

  • Pincus, J. (2009): Vietnam – sustaining growth in difficult times. In: Asean Economic Bulletin, (26) 1, 11–24. Google Scholar

  • Pincus, J. (2015): Why doesn´t Vietnam grow faster? State fragmentation and the limits of vent for surplus growth. In: Southeast Asian Economies, (32) 1, 26–52. Google Scholar

  • Reuters (2015): Samsung ups investment in southern Vietnam project to $2 billion. December 29, 2015. Google Scholar

  • Revilla Diez, J. (1995): Systemtransformation in Vietnam: Industrieller Strukturwandel und regionalwirtschaftliche Auswirkungen. Münster und Hamburg. Google Scholar

  • Schneider, A./Mertes, C.M./Tatem, A.J./Tan, B./Sulla-Menashe, D./Graves, S.J./Patel, N.N./Horton, J.A./Gaughan, A. E./Rollo, J.T. (2015): A new urban landscape in East-Southeast Asia, 2000–2010. In: Environmental Research Letters 10, 034002., 11. Google Scholar

  • Steer, L/Sen, K. (2008). Informal institutions in transition: how Vietnam’s private sector boomed without legal protection. IPPG Discussion Papers Series Number Nineteen, DFID, London. (Internet: https://www.gov.uk/dfid-research-outputs/informal-institutions-in-transition-how-vietnam-s-private-sector-boomed-without-legal-protection) Google Scholar

  • Thanh, V./Anh, N. (2010): Institutional changes for private sector development in Vietnam – experience and lessons. In: P. Dee (Hrsg.): Institutions for Economic Reform in Asia. New York, 166–178. Google Scholar

  • Thang, N. N./Quang, T. (2007). International briefing 18: training and development in Vietnam. International Journal of Training and Development, 11, 139–149. Google Scholar

  • The Diplomat (2014): Vietnam’s ticking debt bomb. August 19, 2014. Google Scholar

  • Thornton, P.H./Ribeiro-Soriano, D./Urbano, D. (2011) Socio-cultural factors and entrepreneurial activity. International Small Business Journal, 29(2), 105–118. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tran, T.U./Kajisa, K. (2006): The impact of green revolution on rice production in Vietnam. In: The Developing Economies, (44)2, 170. Google Scholar

  • Tran, V. T. (2013): Vietnamese economy at the crossroads: New Doi Moi for sustained growth. In: Asian Economic Policy Review (8) 1, 122–143. Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Voice of Vietnam: Vietnam to reduce poverty rate 1.3–1.5 % in 2016, 8.2.2016. (Internet: http://vovworld.vn/en-us/News/Vietnam-to-reduce-poverty-rate-1315-in-2016/408939.vov) Google Scholar

  • World Bank (2009): World development report: reshaping economic geography. New York Google Scholar

  • World Bank (2011): Vietnam Urbanization Review. Technical Assistance Report. (Internet: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/2826/669160ESW0P1130Review000Full0report.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y)Google Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2016-10-24

Published in Print: 2016-11-01


Citation Information: Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie, Volume 60, Issue 3, Pages 121–133, ISSN (Online) 2365-7693, ISSN (Print) 0044-3751, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/zfw-2016-0035.

Export Citation

© 2016 by De Gruyter.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[2]
Franziska Sohns and Javier Revilla Diez
Spatial Economic Analysis, 2018, Page 1
[3]
Franziska Sohns and Javier Revilla Diez
Small Business Economics, 2017

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in