Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie - Crystalline Materials

Editor-in-Chief: Pöttgen, Rainer

Ed. by Antipov, Evgeny / Bismayer, Ulrich / Boldyreva, Elena V. / Friese, Karen / Huppertz, Hubert / Tiekink, E. R. T.

12 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.263
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 2.057

CiteScore 2017: 2.65

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 228, Issue 1


Stacking disorders in zeolites and open-frameworks – structure elucidation and analysis by electron crystallography and X-ray diffraction

Tom Willhammar
  • Stockholm University, Berzelii Center EXSELENT on Porous Materials, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Schweden
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Xiaodong Zou
Published Online: 2012-10-22 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1524/zkri.2012.1564


Intergrowth and stacking disorders are often found in minerals and synthetic zeolites and inorganic open-frameworks. Structure elucidation of stacking disorders in these materials have been difficult and structure solution of stacking disorders in unknown zeolites and open-frameworks has been challenging. There exist no standard methods for structure analysis of such disordered materials. In this review we present various stacking disorders and intergrowth in a number of representative zeolite families containing stacking disorders. These include zeolite beta, SSZ-26/SSZ-33, ITQ-39, ABC-6, ZSM-48, SSZ-31, UTD-1, faujasite FAU/EMT, pentasil ZSM-5/ZSM-11, ITQ-13/ITQ-34, ITQ-22/ITQ-38 etc. Stacking disorders in open-frameworks containing mixed coordinations, including titanosilicates ETS-10 and ETS-4, and the silicogermanate SU-JU-14 are also described. Various crystallographic methods used for solving disordered structures are summarized. The methods include powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), electron diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Examples of model building combined with simulations of PXRD and single crystal X-ray diffraction to verify the structure models are given.

Keywords: Zeolites; Open-frameworks; Stacking disorders; Electron crystallography; Structure analysis

About the article

* Correspondence address: Stockholm University, Berzelii Center EXSELENT on Porous Materials, Dep. of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Schweden,

Published Online: 2012-10-22

Published in Print: 2013-01-01

Citation Information: Zeitschrift für Kristallographie - Crystalline Materials, Volume 228, Issue 1, Pages 11–27, ISSN (Print) 2194-4946, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1524/zkri.2012.1564.

Export Citation

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Helen Y. Playford, Thomas F. Whale, Benjamin J. Murray, Matt G. Tucker, and Christoph G. Salzmann
Journal of Applied Crystallography, 2018, Volume 51, Number 4, Page 1211
Le Xu, Lin Zhang, Jian Li, Koki Muraoka, Fei Peng, Hao Xu, Cong Lin, Zihao Gao, Jin-Gang Jiang, Watcharop Chaikittisilp, Junliang Sun, Tatsuya Okubo, and Peng Wu
Chemistry - A European Journal, 2018
Yi Li and Jihong Yu
Chem. Sci., 2016, Volume 7, Number 6, Page 3472
Guanqun Zhang, Bingchun Wang, Weiping Zhang, Mingrun Li, and Zhijian Tian
Dalton Trans., 2016, Volume 45, Number 15, Page 6634
Le Xu, Xinyi Ji, Jin-Gang Jiang, Lu Han, Shunai Che, and Peng Wu
Chemistry of Materials, 2015, Volume 27, Number 23, Page 7852
Felix Fahrnbauer, Tobias Rosenthal, Tilo Schmutzler, Gerald Wagner, Gavin B. M. Vaughan, Jonathan P. Wright, and Oliver Oeckler
Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2015, Volume 54, Number 34, Page 10020
Felix Fahrnbauer, Tobias Rosenthal, Tilo Schmutzler, Gerald Wagner, Gavin B. M. Vaughan, Jonathan P. Wright, and Oliver Oeckler
Angewandte Chemie, 2015, Volume 127, Number 34, Page 10158
Aleksei Vjunov, John L. Fulton, Donald M. Camaioni, Jian Z. Hu, Sarah D. Burton, Ilke Arslan, and Johannes A. Lercher
Chemistry of Materials, 2015, Volume 27, Number 9, Page 3533
Aleksei Vjunov, John L. Fulton, Thomas Huthwelker, Sonia Pin, Donghai Mei, Gregory K. Schenter, Niranjan Govind, Donald M. Camaioni, Jian Zhi Hu, and Johannes A. Lercher
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2014, Volume 136, Number 23, Page 8296
Wojciech A. Sławiński, David S. Wragg, Duncan Akporiaye, and Helmer Fjellvåg
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 2014, Volume 195, Page 311
Tom Willhammar, Yifeng Yun, and Xiaodong Zou
Advanced Functional Materials, 2014, Volume 24, Number 2, Page 182
Jie Su, Elina Kapaca, Leifeng Liu, Veselina Georgieva, Wei Wan, Junliang Sun, Valentin Valtchev, Sven Hovmöller, and Xiaodong Zou
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 2014, Volume 189, Page 115
Yi Li and Jihong Yu
Chemical Reviews, 2014, Volume 114, Number 14, Page 7268
Jeroen A. van Bokhoven and Carlo Lamberti
Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 2014, Volume 277-278, Page 275
Peng Guo, Leifeng Liu, Yifeng Yun, Jie Su, Wei Wan, Hermann Gies, Haiyan Zhang, Feng-Shou Xiao, and Xiaodong Zou
Dalton Trans., 2014, Volume 43, Number 27, Page 10593
Yannick Lorgouilloux, Mathias Dodin, Enrico Mugnaioli, Claire Marichal, Philippe Caullet, Nicolas Bats, Ute Kolb, and Jean-Louis Paillaud
RSC Advances, 2014, Volume 4, Number 37, Page 19440

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in