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Zeitschrift für Naturforschung A

A Journal of Physical Sciences

Editor-in-Chief: Holthaus, Martin

Editorial Board: Fetecau, Corina / Kiefer, Claus

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Volume 70, Issue 10


Painlevé Integrability and a New Exact Solution of the Multi-Component Sasa-Satsuma Equation

Yujian Ye / Danda Zhang / Yanmei Di
Published Online: 2015-08-07 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/zna-2015-0248


In this article, Painlevé integrability of the multi-component Sasa-Satsuma equation is confirmed by using the standard WTC approach and the Kruskal simplification. Then, by means of the multi-linear variable separation approach, a new exact solution with lower-dimensional arbitrary functions is constructed. For the physical quantity U=i=1Nj=iNaijpipj=32βFxGy(F+G)2, new coherent structure which possesses peakons at x-axis and compactons at y-axis is illustrated both analytically and graphically.

Keywords: Coherent Structure; Exact Solution; Painlevé Integrability; Sasa-Satsuma Equation

PACS Numbers: 02.30.Ik; 02.30.Jr; 05.45.Yv

1 Introduction

In this article, we consider the following multi-component Sasa-Satsuma (MSS) equation

pit+Apixxx+Aβpiux+2Aβpixu=0,  i=1,2,,N, (1)(1)

uy=i=1Nj=iNaij(pipj)x, (2)(2)

which is a generalization of the SS equation introduced recently [1]


This equation is usually used to describe the propagation of an ultra-short pulse through optical fibres. The integrability of the two-component MSS equation is confirmed via the standard Painlevé analysis, and some special coherent structures with periodic properties have been obtained by means of the local Laurent expansion approach in [2, 3].

In the past four decades, integrable equations have been widely studied and applied in many natural sciences such as biology, chemistry, mathematics, communication, and especially in almost all the physics branches, like condense matter physics, quantum field theory, fluid dynamics, and nonlinear optics. It is well known that integrable equations have nice properties such as Lax-pair, infinite number of conservation laws, infinite number of symmetries, and Painlevé property. One of the most important methods for the investigation of integrable equations is the Painlevé analysis. There are two main ways: one is the Ablowitz–Ramani–Segur (ARS) test [4]; the other is the Weiss–Tabor–Carnevale (WTC) test [5–7]. By using the ARS test, authors have discussed the possible connection between the integrability of partial differential equations (PDEs) and the Painlevé property of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) which are obtained by some exact reductions, Here, an ODE is said to have Painlevé property if all movable singularities of all solutions are poles [4]. However, the main drawback in applying the ARS test to a given PDE is that one has to first obtain all possible reduced ODEs and then determine whether each ODE is of Painlevé type (after allowing for possible transformations). Fortunately, the WTC test can be viewed as a natural extension of the ARS test. We can apply this test directly to a given PDE without having to reduce it to ODEs. Here, a PDE has Painlevé property if its solutions are single-valued about a movable singularity manifold. If one only needs to prove the Painlevé property of a model, one may use the Kruskal simplification for the WTC approach. In Section 2, we combine the standard WTC approach and the Kruskal simplification to study the Painlevé property of the MSS equation (1)–(2).

The multi-linear variable separation (MLVS) approach [8–15] is an important and effective method to construct exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations, which has been used to solve a diversity of (2+1)-dimensional integrable equations including the DS equation, the NNV equation, the dispersive long wave equation, the Broer–Kaup–Kupershmidt (BKK) equation, the general (M+N)-component AKNS system, the symmetric sine–Gordon equation, the differential-difference (DΔ) asymmetric NNV equation and the special Toda lattice. One of the most important things may be that rich coherent structures such as dromions, lumps, ring solitons, breathers, instantons, peakons, compactons, and foldons can be constructed, because MLVS solutions (or a universal formula) include some lower-dimensional arbitrary functions. In Section 3, we show whether the MLVS approach can be applied to (1)–(2). The last section contains the conclusions and discussion.

2 Painlevé Integrability of the MSS Equation

According to the standard WTC approach, if (1)–(2) can pass the Painlevé test, all the possible solutions can be written as

pi=k=0pikfk+ai,  i=1,2,,N, (3)(3)

u=k=0ukfk+b, (4)(4)

with 3N arbitrary functions among pik, uk in addition to f, where ai and b are negative integers to be determined. Namely, all the solutions of (1)–(2) are single valued about an arbitrary movable singularity manifold f.

To determine the constants ai and b, one may use the standard leading order analysis. Substituting pi=pi0fai, u=u0f b into (1)–(2) and balancing the most dominant terms, we have

ai=1,  b=2, (5)(5)

u0=3fx22β,  i=1Nj=iNaijpi0pj0=3fxfy2β. (6)(6)

Then, substituting the Laurent expansion of the solutions (20)–(21) with (5)–(6) into (1)–(2) and balancing the coefficients of the powers (fk− 4, fk− 3), respectively, for different k, we could get the recursion relations to fix the functions pik and uk as follows:

(E00Aβ(k4)fxp100E0Aβ(k4)fxp20000EAβ(k4)fxpN0F1F2FN(k2)fy)(p1kp2kpNkuk)=JΨ=(P1kP2kPNkUk), (7)(7)


E=Afx3(k2)k(k4),Fi=(k2)fx(m=1iamipm0+m=i+1Naimpm0),  i=1,2,,N,


with pik=uk=0 for k<0. It is easy to know that if the determinant


of matrix J in (7) is not equal to zero, the functions pik and uk can be solved uniquely by Cramer’s rule. Hence, we can obtain the resonances


The resonance at k=−1 corresponds to the arbitrary singularity manifold f. If the MSS equations (1) and (2) have Painlevé property, we require that 3N resonance conditions totally at k=0 (N − 1 resonance conditions), at k=2 (N resonance conditions), at k=3 (one resonance conditions), and at k=4 (N resonance conditions), are satisfied identically so that the general series expansion (20)–(21) includes 3N arbitrary functions among pik and uk. From (6), we know that the N − 1 resonance conditions at k=0 are satisfied identically because only one condition exists among N functions pi0. For the computational complexity, we use the Kruskal’s simplification

f=x+ϕ(y,t),  pik=pik(y,t),  uk=uk(y,t)

without loss of the generality to prove the Painlevé property, where ϕ (y, t) is an arbitrary function. In this case, the resonance conditions are simplified to

pi(k3),t+(k3)pi(k2)ϕt+A(k2)k(k4)pik+Aβ(k4)pi0uk,+Aβm=1k1(k+m4)pimukm=0,i=1,2,,N, (8)(8)

(k2)ukϕy+uk1,y=i=1Nj=iNaijm=1k1(k2)pimpj(km) (9)(9)

and the result at k=0 becomes

u0=32β,  i=1Nj=iNaijpi0pj0=3fy2β

with N − 1 arbitrary functions.

For k=1, (8)–(9) become to

3Api13Aβpi0u1=0,  i=1,2,,N,u1ϕy=i=1Nj=iNaij(pi0pj1+pi1pj0).

Through the Cramer’s rule, we obtain

u1=0,  pi1=0,  i=1,2,,N.

For k=2, we can get


and the functions pi2, (i=1, 2, …, N) are arbitrary. In other words, N resonance conditions satisfy identically at k=2. For k=3, by using (8)–(9), we have

pi0,t3Api3Aβpi0u3=0,  i=1,2,,N,u2,y+u3ϕy=i=1Nj=iNaij(pi0pj3+pi3pj0).

This means that

pi3=pi0,tAβpi0u33A,  i=1,2,,N

and the function u3 is arbitrary. For k=4, we arrive at the following system of simplified equations


After calculation, we can see that u4 can be expressed as


and pi4, (i=1, 2, …, N) are arbitrary. It means that N resonance conditions satisfy identically at k=4. Therefore the Painlevé property of the MSS equation (1)–(2) is proved, namely, the MSS equation (1)–(2) has Painlevé integrability.

3 Multi-Linear Variable Separation Approach

In this section, we construct a MLVS solution which is based on the corresponding Bäcklund transformation for the MSS equation (1)–(2). It is well known that Bäcklund transformation can be obtained by using the truncated Painlevé expansion usually. See (20)–(21) with (5)–(6). So we begin to discuss the problem from the following Bäcklund transformation:

pi=pi0f+0,i=1,2,,N, (10)(10)

u=32β(lnf)xx+u2(x,t), (11)(11)

where {0,0,,0N,u2(x,t)} is a seed solution of (1)–(2) and pi0pi0(x, y, t), ff(x, y, t) need be determined. To consider furthermore, by taking the prior variable separation ansatz


we have


from (2). So, we can let

pi0=Hi(y)FxGy,  i=1,2,,N,

and this restrict equation is reduced to

i=1Nj=iNaijHi(y)Hj(y)=32β. (12)(12)

Then, a direct computation gives


from (1). For solving this equation, we change it to the following form,


Because F, u2 are only functions of {x, t} and G is a function of {y, t}, this equation can be solved by the following variable separated equations:

Gt=c0+c1G+c2G2, (13)(13)

Ft+2Aβu2Fx+AFxxx34AFxx2Fx=c0+c1Fc2F2 (14)(14)

with the arbitrary functions c0c0(t), c1c1(t) and c2c2(t). To solve the Riccati equation (13) is also quite easy because of the arbitrariness of the functions c0, c1, and c2. The result reads

G(y,t)=C0(t)C1(t)+K(y)+C2(t), (15)(15)

where C0C0(t), C1C1(t), C2C2(t), and K(y) can all be considered as arbitrary functions of the indicated variables while c0, c1, and c2 are related to C0, C1, and C2 by


For (14), we may treat it alternatively. Namely, we consider F is an arbitrary function while the function u2 can be determined (14), that is


Therefore, the MSS equation (1)–(2) has an exact solution

pi=Hi(y)FxGyF+G,  i=1,2,,N, (16)(16)

u=32β[FxxF+G(FxF+G)2]c0c1F+c2F2+Ft2AβFx12βFxxxFx+38β(FxxFx)2, (17)(17)

where F(x, t) is an arbitrary function, G(y, t) is determined by (15) and Hi(y), (i=1, 2, …, N) need to satisfy the restrict equation (12).

For the quantity U=i=1Nj=iNaijpipj, we have


with F being an arbitrary function of {x, t} and G being (15). It is interesting that this expression is valid for many (2+1)-dimensional integrable equations, such as the DS equation, the NNV equation, the dispersive long wave equation, the Broer–Kaup–Kupershmidt (BKK) equation, the general (M+N)-component AKNS system, and the symmetric sine–Gordon equation. If we select the functions F and G appropriately, we can obtain many kinds of new coherent structures, and some of them are listed as follows.

Since the pioneering work of Camassa and Holm (CH) [16], a special type of (1+1)-dimensional weak solutions has attracted the attention of scientists. These types of solitary waves are called peakons because they are discontinuous at their crest, and the collisions among them are completely elastic. Furthermore, Rosenau and Hyman [17] introduced a class of (1+1)-dimensional solitary waves with compact support (called compacton) in fully nonlinear KdV equation K(m, n) for understanding the role of nonlinear dispersion. Although many soliton equations, such as the CH equation [18] have been extended to (2+1)-dimensions in several ways, one does not know anything on the (2+1)-dimensional peakons and compactons which are localized in all directions. In fact, the entrance of the arbitrary functions F and G in (1) tells that the (2+1)-dimensional peakons and compactons can exist by selecting the arbitrary functions as some suitable piecewise continuous functions [8]. Thus, if setting

F=i=1M{Pi(x+eit),x+eit0,Pi(xeit)+2Pi(0),x+eit>0, (18)(18)

where Pi(ξ)=Pi(x + ei), i=1, 2, …, M are differentiable functions and possess the boundary conditions Pi(±∞)=Ei, i=1, 2, …, M with Ei being constants and

G=j=1N{0,y+hjty1j,Qj(y+hjt)Qj(y1j),y1j<y+hjty2j,Qj(y2j)Qj(y1j),y+hjt>y2j, (19)(19)

where Qj, j=1, 2, …, N are differentiable functions and satisfy the conditions Qjy|y=y1j=Qjy|y=y2j=0, j=1, 2, …, N, we have a new mixed coherent structure which possesses peakons at x-axis and compactons at y-axis.

In Figures 15, we plot the interaction property between two peakon-compacton structures for the quantity U=1000FxGy(F+G)2 with

Two peakon-compacton structures at t=−3.
Figure 1:

Two peakon-compacton structures at t=−3.

Interaction at t=−1.
Figure 2:

Interaction at t=−1.

Interaction at t=0.
Figure 3:

Interaction at t=0.

Interaction at t=1.
Figure 4:

Interaction at t=1.

Position is exchanged after interaction at t=3.
Figure 5:

Position is exchanged after interaction at t=3.

F=1+{ln[tanh(1x+t2)],xt0,ln[tanh(1+xt2)]2ln[tanh(12)],xt>0,+λ{ln[tanh(1x2t2)],x+2t0,ln[tanh(1+x+2t2)]2ln[tanh(12)],x+2t>0, (20)(20)

G=20+{0,ytπ2,sin(yt)+1,π2<ytπ2,2,yt>π2, (21)(21)

where |λ|=12 means the amplitude of the right structure in Figure 1 and if λ>0, this structure is a bright soliton.

In Figure 6, for simplification, we only plot the four peakon-compacton structures for the quantity U=1000FxGy(F+G)2 with the above F and

Four peakon-compacton structures at t=−3.
Figure 6:

Four peakon-compacton structures at t=−3.

G=20+{0,ytπ2,sin(yt)+1,π2<ytπ2,2,yt>π2,+{0,y5tπ2,2sin(y5t)+2,π2<y5tπ2,4,y5t>π2. (22)(22)

4 Conclusions and Discussion

Painlevé test and the variable separation method are two useful methods in the study of nonlinear evolution equations. In this article, Painlevé integrability of the MSS equation (1)–(2) is confirmed by means of the WTC approach. Then, a MLVS solution (16)–(17) including some lower-dimensional arbitrary functions is constructed by using the MLVS approach. For the physical quantity U=i=1Nj=iNaijpipj=32βFxGy(F+G)2, new coherent structure which possesses peakons at x-axis and compactons at y-axis is illustrated both analytically and graphically.

It is known that the fast diffusion equation ut=(u12ux)x has a MLVS solution


with constraint conditions


which is obtained by means of the generalized conditional symmetry approach (or the nonlinear differential constraint method) [19]. Thus, the classification problem of integrable and non-integrable equations admitting MLVS solutions by using the generalized conditional symmetry approach is worthy of study.


This work is supported by the National NSF of China (Grant No.11371323).


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About the article

Corresponding author: Yanmei Di, Department of Applied Mathematics, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023, China, E-mail: mathymdi@163.com

Received: 2015-06-02

Accepted: 2015-07-13

Published Online: 2015-08-07

Published in Print: 2015-10-01

Citation Information: Zeitschrift für Naturforschung A, Volume 70, Issue 10, Pages 823–828, ISSN (Online) 1865-7109, ISSN (Print) 0932-0784, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/zna-2015-0248.

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