Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B

A Journal of Chemical Sciences

12 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.757

CiteScore 2017: 0.68

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.277
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.394

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 72, Issue 3


A route to new colorimetric pH sensors

Sebastian Wandtke
  • Institut für Anorganische Chemie Georg-August University Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Dietmar Stalke
  • Corresponding author
  • Institut für Anorganische Chemie Georg-August University Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-02-15 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/znb-2016-0229


The detection of target molecules via luminescence changes of appropriate sensors is a powerful tool to determine the presence of analytes qualitatively and quantitatively. Therefore, the exploration of synthetic routes to new sensors is important to facilitate the recognition of a large range of analytes. In this report we describe such a new route to sensors and discuss the behavior of the synthesized sensors in the presence of different analytes. The prepared anthracene derivatives belong to two classes of substances. On the one hand imines were synthesized wherein the isomerization of their inherent carbon nitrogen double bond provides an effective non-radiative relaxation pathway. On the other hand amines were received by reduction of the mentioned imines. Their intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) based sensing mechanism allows the detection of protons in a reversible colorimetric fashion. Furthermore, the addition of zinc cations in the aprotic solvent DCM provides the first example showing that the detection of these colorimetric pH sensors is not limited to protons.

This article offers supplementary material which is provided at the end of the article.

Keywords: anthracene; colorimetric; luminescence; pH sensor


  • [1]

    A. U. Acuña, F. Amat-Guerri, Fluorescence of Supermolecules, Polymers, and Nanosystems, Vol. 4, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008, pp. 3–20.Google Scholar

  • [2]

    B. Valeur, M. N. Berberan-Santos, J. Chem. Educ. 2011, 88, 731.Google Scholar

  • [3]

    W. E. Safford, Ann. Rep. Smithsonian Inst. 1915, 271.Google Scholar

  • [4]

    F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 2nd ed., W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1917, p. 283.Google Scholar

  • [5]

    A. U. Acuña, F. Amat-Guerri, P. Morcillo, M. Liras, B. Rodríguez, Org. Lett. 2009, 11, 3020.Google Scholar

  • [6]

    L. J. Kricka, P. Fortina, Clin. Chem. 2009, 55, 670.Google Scholar

  • [7]

    A. M. Breul, M. D. Hager, U. S. Schubert, Chem. Soc. Rev. 2013, 42, 5366.Google Scholar

  • [8]

    D. Yokoyama, J. Mater. Chem. 2011, 21, 19187.Google Scholar

  • [9]

    S. W. Hell, E. Rittweger, Nature 2009, 461, 1069.Google Scholar

  • [10]

    J. Wu, W. Liu, J. Ge, H. Zhang, P. Wang, Chem. Soc. Rev. 2011, 40, 3483.Google Scholar

  • [11]

    J. T. Hutt, J. Jo, A. Olasz, C.-H. Chen, D. Lee, Z. D. Aron, Org. Lett. 2012, 14, 3162.Google Scholar

  • [12]

    A. Rananaware, R. S. Bhosale, H. Patil, M. Al Kobaisi, A. Abraham, R. Shukla, S. V. Bhosale, S. V. Bhosale, RSC Adv. 2014, 4, 59078.Google Scholar

  • [13]

    K. Hirano, S. Urban, C. Wang, F. Glorius, Org. Lett. 2009, 11, 1019.Google Scholar

  • [14]

    T. Steiner, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2002, 41, 48.Google Scholar

  • [15]

    J.-S. Wu, W.-M. Liu, X.-Q. Zhuang, F. Wang, P.-F. Wang, S.-L. Tao, X.-H. Zhang, S.-K. Wu, S.-T. Lee, Org. Lett. 2007, 9, 33.Google Scholar

  • [16]

    Y. Ma, H. Liu, S. Liu, R. Yang, Analyst 2012, 137, 2313.Google Scholar

  • [17]

    S. Kim, J. Y. Noh, K. Y. Kim, J. H. Kim, H. K. Kang, S.-W. Nam, S. H. Kim, S. Park, C. Kim, J. Kim, Inorg. Chem. 2012, 51, 3597.Google Scholar

  • [18]

    C.-H. Chen, D.-J. Liao, C.-F. Wan, A.-T. Wu, Analyst 2013, 138, 2527.Google Scholar

  • [19]

    A. Kumar, V. Kumar, K. K. Upadhyay, Analyst 2013, 138, 1891.Google Scholar

  • [20]

    H. Xu, Z. Liu, L. Sheng, M. Chen, D. Huang, H. Zhang, C. Song, S. Chen, New J. Chem. 2013, 37, 274.Google Scholar

  • [21]

    A. K. Mandal, M. Suresh, P. Das, E. Suresh, M. Baidya, S. K. Ghosh, A. Das, Org. Lett. 2012, 14, 2980.Google Scholar

  • [22]

    T. Kottke, D. Stalke, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 1993, 26, 615.Google Scholar

  • [23]

    D. Stalke, Chem. Soc. Rev. 1998, 27, 171.Google Scholar

  • [24]

    Saint (version 8.30C), Bruker AXS Inc., Madison, Wisconsin (USA) 2013.Google Scholar

  • [25]

    L. Krause, R. Herbst-Irmer, G. M. Sheldrick, D. Stalke, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 2015, 48, 3.Google Scholar

  • [26]

    L. Krause, R. Herbst-Irmer, D. Stalke, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 2015, 48, 1907.Google Scholar

  • [27]

    G. M. Sheldrick, Acta Crystallogr. 2015, A71, 3.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [28]

    G. M. Sheldrick, Acta Crystallogr. 2015, C71, 3.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [29]

    C. B. Huebschle, B. Dittrich, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 2011, 44, 238.Google Scholar

  • [30]

    R. Srinivasan, N. R. Jagannathan, Acta Crystallogr. 1982, B38, 2093.Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2016-10-31

Accepted: 2016-12-16

Published Online: 2017-02-15

Published in Print: 2017-03-01

Citation Information: Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B, Volume 72, Issue 3, Pages 199–206, ISSN (Online) 1865-7117, ISSN (Print) 0932-0776, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/znb-2016-0229.

Export Citation

©2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Supplementary Article Materials

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in