In the course of our continuous search for bioactive metabolites from endophytic fungi living in plants from the Brazilian fl ora, leaves of Alibertia macrophylla (Rubiaceae) were submitted to isolation of endophytes, and two species of Penicillium were isolated. The acetonitrile fraction obtained in corn from a culture of Penicillium sp.1 afforded orcinol (1). On the other hand, Penicillium sp.1 cultivated in potato-dextrose-broth furnished two different compounds, cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Val) (2) and uracil (3). The chromatographic fractionation of the acetonitrile fraction obtained from Penicillium sp.2 led to three dihydroisocoumarins, 4-hydroxymellein (4), 8-methoxymellein (5) and 5-hydroxymellein (6). Compounds 5 and 6 were obtained from the Penicillium genus for the fi rst time. Additionally, metabolites 1 - 6 were evaluated for their antifungal and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. The most active compounds 1 and 4 exhibited detection limits of 5.00 and 10.0 μg against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, respectively. Compound 2 showed a detection limit of 10.0 μg, displaying potent AChE inhibitory activity.