Repellent rings at titanium cylinders against overgrowth by fibroblasts

  • 1 Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria
  • 2 Institute of Biomedical Mechatronics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria
  • 3 Department of Cardiology and Internal Intensive Medicine, Kepler University Hospital Linz, Linz, Austria
  • 4 Institute of Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria
  • 5 Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany
Peter Fosodeder
  • Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria
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  • Peter Fosodeder received his Bachelor as well as Master in Technical Physics from the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria. The topic of his Master thesis, which he defended in November 2018, was ‘Laser-Structured and Anodized Surfaces on Medical Implants for Reduced Adhesion of Cells’. Since then he is working on a PhD thesis in the field of Terahertz spectroscopy at Recendt GmbH in Linz, Austria.
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, Werner Baumgartner
  • Institute of Biomedical Mechatronics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria
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  • Werner Baumgartner obtained his Dipl.-Ing. (MSc) and PhD degrees in Mechatronics and Biophysics from the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria, in 1995 and 1997, respectively. During his master and doctoral theses, he worked on stochastical methods in electrophysiology and microscopy as well as on mathematical methods in the investigation of ion channels. After a sabbatical at the Yale University in the USA, he became a postdoctoral fellow at the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology of the University of Würzburg, Germany in 1998, and 1 year later a senior researcher. He earned the Habilitation degree for cellular biophysics in 2002 from the University of Würzburg. In 2004 he became a full professor of cellular neurobionics at the Institute of Biology II of the RWTH Aachen, where he stayed till 2013. Since then he has been the head of the Institute of Biomedical Mechatronics at the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Ausria. His research interests include the investigation of adhesionand cell-recognition molecules, atomic force microscopy, theoretical biophysics and biomimetics.
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, Clemens Steinwender
  • Department of Cardiology and Internal Intensive Medicine, Kepler University Hospital Linz, Linz, Austria
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  • Clemens Steinwender studied Medicine at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria and obtained there also his Doctor of Medicine (MD) in 1996. He joined in 1999 the Linz General Hospital, which is now part of the Kepler University Hospital in Linz. He earned the Habilitation degree for cardiology in 2010 from the Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Austria. In 2013, he became head of the Department of Cardiology at the Linz General Hospital. In Dec. 2013, he implanted the worldwide first Micra® pacemaker system. Since then he treated far more than 100 patients. Clemens Steinwender has a very great experience in all techniques, which are necessary for the implantation of leadless pacemakers. He has an excellent relationship to the ‘Physiological Research Laboratories’ (PRL) of Medtronic in Minneapolis, USA, where the Micra® has been exclusively developed.
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, Achim Walter HasselORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9816-6740
  • Institute of Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria
  • orcid.org/0000-0002-9816-6740
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  • Achim Walter Hassel studied Chemistry at the Heinrich Heine University in Düsseldorf, Germany and made his PhD about ultrathin valve metal oxide films. After a 2-year research stay at the University of Hokkaido in Sapporo, Japan (JSPS and AvH Fellow), he built up a research team on electrochemistry and corrosion at the Max Planck Institute for Iron Research in Düsseldorf. From 2007, he was scientific director of the International Research School for Surface and Interface Engineering in Advanced Materials. In July 2009, he moved as full professor to the Johannes Kepler University Linz, where he leads the Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials. Achim W. Hassel had a large several-year Christian Doppler Laboratory on combinatorial oxide chemistry and has common activities with many industrial partners including producers of Ti-based implants.
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, Camilo Florian
  • Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany
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  • Camilo Florian was between February 2019 and February 2020 PostDoc researcher at the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) in Berlin, Germany, then he moved as postdoctoral research fellow to the Princeton University in Princeton, USA. He received in 2005 his Bachelor in Physics from the National Pedagogics University, Physics Department in Bogota, Colombia and in 2012 and in 2016 his Master in Physical Engineering and his PhD degree, respectively, from the University of Barcelona, Department of Applied Physics and Optics in Barcelona, Spain. During his PhD work he did research internships at the Italian Institute of Technology, NanoPhysics Department in Genoa, Italy and at the CNRS, Aix-Marseille University, Laser, Plasmas and Photonics Processes LP3 in Marseille, France. From 2016 to 2018 he was Postdoctoral Fellow in the Laser Processing Group at the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) in Madrid, Spain.
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, Jörn BonseORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4984-3896
  • Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany
  • orcid.org/0000-0003-4984-3896
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  • Jörn Bonse is a staff scientist at the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) in Berlin, Germany. His research interests include the fundamentals and applications of laser-matter interaction, especially with respect to ultrashort laser pulses, laser-induced periodic nanostructures, time-resolved optical techniques, laser processes in photovoltaics, and optical phase change materials. He received a PhD degree in Physics from the Technical University of Berlin (Germany) in 2001, and a Diploma degree in Physics from the University of Hannover (Germany) in 1996. Dr. Bonse has occupied various research positions at institutions such as the Max-Born-Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin, the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) in Madrid (Spain), and the Laser Zentrum Hannover (LZH) in Hannover. He was appointed as a senior laser application specialist at Newport’s Spectra-Physics Lasers Division in Stahnsdorf, Germany.
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and Johannes HeitzORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5608-5133
  • Corresponding author
  • Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria
  • orcid.org/0000-0002-5608-5133
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  • Johannes Heitz is expert in the field of laser-matter interaction at surfaces including photo-induced nanopatterning and modification of polymer surfaces, and deposition of thin polymer films by laser- ablation. He studied Physics in Freiburg (Germany) until 1989. Since then he is employed at the Institute of Applied Physics at the Johannes Kepler University Linz (Dissertation 1993, Habilitation 1999). Since 1999 he is Associate Professor at the university in Linz. From Jan. 1995 he stayed for 1 year in Tsukuba, Japan as research fellow.
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Abstract

The invention of new miniaturized and smart medical implants continues in all medical fields, including miniaturized heart pacemakers. These implants often come with a titanium (Ti) casing, which may have to be removed after several months or years and shall therefore not be completely overgrown by cells or scar tissue after implantation. Scar tissue is mainly formed by fibroblast cells and extracellular matrix proteins like collagen produced by them. Suppression of fibroblast growth at Ti surfaces could be achieved by 800 nm femtosecond laser-ablation creating self-organized sharp spikes with dimensions in the 10 μm-range which are superposed by fine sub-μm parallel ripples. On flat Ti control samples, the best results regarding suppression of cell growth were obtained on spike-structures which were additionally electrochemically anodized under acidic conditions. When Ti cylinders with a diameter of 8 mm (similar as the pacemakers) were placed upright in a culture of murine fibroblasts, a multi-layer cell growth up to a height of at least 1.5 mm occurred within 19–22 days. We have demonstrated that a laser-structured and anodized ring around the Ti cylinder surface is an effective way to create a barrier that murine fibroblasts were not able to overgrow within this time.

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