Oxidative Stress Caused by Inactivation of Glutathione Peroxidase and Adaptive Responses

Y. Miyamoto, Y. H. Koh, Y. S. Park, N. Fujiwara, H. Sakiyama, Y. Misonou, T. Ookawara, K. Suzuki, K. Honke and N. Taniguchi

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as by-products of cellular metabolism, primarily in the mitochondria. When the cellular production of ROS exceeds the cell's antioxidant capacity, cellular macromolecules such as lipids, proteins and DNA can be damaged. Because of this, 'oxidative stress' is thought to contribute to aging and pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. However, in the last 10-15 years, a considerable body of evidence has accumulated that ROS serve as subcellular messengers, and play a role in gene regulation and signal transduction pathways, which may be involved in defensive mechanisms against oxidative stress. This review focuses on oxidative stress caused by the inactivation of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), a major peroxide scavenging enzyme. GPx is inactivated by a variety of physiological substances, including nitric oxide and carbonyl compounds in vitro and in cell culture. Decreased GPx activity has also been reported in tissues where oxidative stress occurs in several pathological animal models. The accumulation of increased levels of peroxide resulting from inactivation of GPx may act as a second messenger and regulate expression of antiapoptotic genes and the GPx itself to protect against cell damage. These findings suggest that GPx undergoes inactivation under various conditions such as nitroxidative stress and glycoxidative stress, and that these changes are a common feature of various types of oxidative stress which may be associated with the modification of redox regulation and cellular function.

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Biological Chemistry keeps you up-to-date with the latest advances in the molecular life sciences. The journal publishes Research Articles, Short Communications, Reviews and Minireviews. Areas include: general biochemistry/pathobiochemistry, structural biology, molecular and cellular biology, genetics and epigenetics, virology, molecular medicine, plant molecular biology/biochemistry and novel experimental methodologies.

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