Prostatic trypsin-like kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) and other prostate-expressed tryptic proteinases as regulators of signalling via proteinase-activated receptors (PARs)

Andrew J. Ramsay 1 , 1 , Janet C. Reid 2 , 2 , Mark N. Adams 3 , 3 , Hemamali Samaratunga 4 , 4 , Ying Dong 5 , 5 , Judith A. Clements 6 , 6 ,  and John D. Hooper 7 , 7
  • 1 Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 6 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, Queensland 4059, Australia
  • 2 Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 6 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, Queensland 4059, Australia
  • 3 Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 6 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, Queensland 4059, Australia
  • 4 Department of Anatomical Pathology, Sullivan Nicolaides Pathology, Taringa 4068, Australia
  • 5 Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 6 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, Queensland 4059, Australia
  • 6 Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 6 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, Queensland 4059, Australia
  • 7 Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 6 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, Queensland 4059, Australia

Abstract

The prostate is a site of high expression of serine proteinases including members of the kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) family, as well as other secreted and membrane-anchored serine proteinases. It has been known for some time that members of this enzyme family elicit cellular responses by acting directly on cells. More recently, it has been recognised that for serine proteinases with specificity for cleavage after arginine and lysine residues (trypsin-like or tryptic enzymes) these cellular responses are often mediated by cleavage of members of the proteinase-activated receptor (PAR) family – a four member sub-family of G protein-coupled receptors. Here, we review the expression of PARs in prostate, the ability of prostatic trypsin-like KLKs and other prostate-expressed tryptic enzymes to cleave PARs, as well as the prostate cancer-associated consequences of PAR activation. In addition, we explore the dysregulation of trypsin-like serine proteinase activity through the loss of normal inhibitory mechanisms and potential interactions between these dysregulated enzymes leading to aberrant PAR activation, intracellular signalling and cancer-promoting cellular changes.

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Biological Chemistry keeps you up-to-date with the latest advances in the molecular life sciences. The journal publishes Research Articles, Short Communications, Reviews and Minireviews. Areas include: general biochemistry/pathobiochemistry, structural biology, molecular and cellular biology, genetics and epigenetics, virology, molecular medicine, plant molecular biology/biochemistry and novel experimental methodologies.

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