Teacher Turnover, Composition and Qualifications in the Year-Round School Setting

Jennifer Graves 1 , Steven McMullen 2  and Kathryn Rouse 3
  • 1 Department of Economics and Public Finance, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid, Spain
  • 2 Department of Economics & Business, Hope College, 41 Graves Place, Holland, USA
  • 3 Department of Economics, Elon University, 2075 Campus Box, Elon, USA
Jennifer Graves
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Economics and Public Finance, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid, Spain
  • Email
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
, Steven McMullen
  • Department of Economics & Business, Hope College, 41 Graves Place, Holland, MI 49423, USA
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
and Kathryn Rouse

Abstract

We estimate the effects of year-round school (YRS) calendars on teacher turnover and teacher qualifications for the state of California, finding that YRS results in diminished teacher education and experience. This result is notable as previous research finds negative academic impacts of YRS in California. As context for our findings, we use comparisons with North Carolina, where research has found neutral academic impacts for the same calendar. While we find that schools in both locations hire more teachers to accommodate the calendar, teacher qualifications do not decrease for North Carolina. Our results are therefore consistent with, and can partly explain, evidence on the impact of YRS on student achievement. Additionally, as YRS is implemented in more affluent areas in North Carolina and in disadvantaged populations in California, we use matched samples to show that student demographics do not explain our teacher impacts found for California.

  • Anderson, D. M., and M. B. Walker. 2015. “Does Shortening the School Week Impact Student Performance? Evidence from the Four-Day School Week.” Education Finance and Policy 10 (3): 314–349.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Angrist, Joshua D., and Jorn-Steffen Pischke. 2009. Mostly Harmless Econometrics: An Empiricist's Companion. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 2009

  • Barnes, G., E. Crowe, and N. Schaefer. 2007. The Cost of Teacher Turnover in Five School Districts: A Pilot Study. New York, NY: National Commission on Teaching and America's Future.

  • Bellei, C. 2009. “Does Lengthening the School Day Increase Students? Academic Achievement? Results from a Natural Experiment in Chile.” Economics of Education Review 28 (5): 629–640.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Blankenship, T. 1984. “Update: These School Systems Swear by the Four-Day School Week because Students Work Harder and Face Fewer Distractions.” The American School Board Journal 171 (8): 32–33.

  • Buddin, R., and G. Zamarro. 2009. “Teacher Qualifications and Student Achievement in Urban Elementary Schools.” Journal of Urban Economics 66: 103115.

  • California Department of Education (CDE). Year-Round Education Program Guide. 2014. Accessed February 28. 2014. http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/fa/yr/guide.asp.

  • Clotfelter, Charles T., Helen F. Ladd, and Jacob L. Vigdor. 2007. “Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement: Longitudinal Analysis with Student Fixed Effects.” Economics of Education Review 26 (6): 673–682.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Cooper, Harris, Jeffrey C. Valentine, Kelly Charlton, and April Melson. 2003. “The Effects of Modified School Calendars on Student Achievement and on School and Community Attitudes.” Review of Educational Research 73 (1): 1–52.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Croninger, R., J. King Rice, A. Rathbun, and M. Nishio. 2007. “Teacher Qualifications and Early Learning: Effects of Certification, Degree, and Experience on First-Grade Student Achievement.” Economics of Education Review 26: 312–324.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Daneshvary, Nasser, and T.M. Clauretie. 2001. “Efficiency and Costs in Education: Year-Round versus Traditional Schedules.” Economics of Education Review 20: 279–287.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Darling-Hammond, L. 2000. “Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence.” Journal of Education Policy Analysis 8 (1). 1–44. http://epaa.asa.edu/epaa/v8n1/.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Donis-Keller, C., and D. L. Silvernail. 2009. Research Brief: A Review of the Evidence on the Four-Day School Week. Portland, ME: Center for Education Policy, Applied Research and Evaluation, University of Southern Maine.

  • Gandara, Patricia. 1992. “Extended Year, Extended Contracts. Increasing Teacher Salary Options.” Urban Education 27 (3): 229–247.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Gilpin, Gregory. 2017. School Capacity, Calendar Conversions, and Teachers' Secondary Employment. Unpublished manuscript. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University–Bozeman.

  • Goldhaber, D., B. Gross, and D. Player. 2011. “Teacher Career Paths, Teacher Quality, and Persistence in the Classroom: Are Public Schools Keeping Their Best?” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 30: 57–87.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Graves, J. 2010. “The Academic Impact of Multi-Track Year-Round School Calendars: A Response to School Overcrowding.” Journal of Urban Economics 67: 378–391.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Graves, J. 2011. “Effects of Year-Round Schooling on Disadvantaged Students and the Distribution of Standardized Test Performance.” Economics of Education Review 30: 1281–1305.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Graves, J. 2013a. “School Calendars, Child Care Availability and Maternal Employment.” Journal of Urban Economics 78: 57–70.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Graves, J. 2013b. “The Effects of School Calendar Type on Maternal Employment across Racial Groups: A Story of Child Care Availability.” American Economic Review 103: 279–283. P&P.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Graves, J., S. McMullen, and K. Rouse. 2013. “Multi-Track Year-Round Schooling as Cost Savings Reform: Not Just a Matter of Time.” Education Finance and Policy 8: 300–315.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Guin, K. 2004. “Chronic Teacher Turnover in Urban Elementary Schools.” Education Policy Analysis Archives 12 (42): 1–30, Retrieved July 9, 2018 from http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v12n42/.

  • Hanushek, Eric A., John F. Kain, Daniel M. O'Brian, and Steven G. Rivkin. 2005. “The Market for Teacher Quality.” NBER Working Paper 11154. National Bureau of Economic Research.

  • Hanushek, Eric A., John F. Kain, and Steven G. Rivkin. 2004. “Why Public Schools Lose Teachers.” Journal of Human Resources 39 (2):326–354.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Haser, S.G., and I. Nasser. 2003. “Teacher Job Satisfaction in a Year-Round School.” Educational Leadership 60: 65–67.

  • Hincapie, D. 2016. "Do Longer School Days Improve Student Achievement?: Evidence from Colombia." IDB Working Paper Series (Social Sector. Education Division), IDB-WP-679.

  • Jensen, V. M. 2013. “Working Longer Makes Students Stronger? The Effects of Ninth Grade Classroom Hours on Ninth Grade Student Performance.” Educational Research 55 (2): 180–194.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Jepsen, C., and S. Rivkin. 2009. “Class Size Reduction and Student Achievement.” Journal of Human Resources 44: 223–250.

  • Kneese, C. 2000. Teaching in Year-Round Schools. Washington DC: ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education. http://ericae.net/edo/ed449123.htm

  • Koki, S. 1992. Modified School Schedules: A Look at the Research and the Pacific. Honolulu, HI: Pacific Region Educational Lab. Retreived on July 9, 2018 from ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 024707. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED354630.

  • Kreitzer, A., and G. Glass. 1993. Policy Considerations in Conversion to Year-Round Schools (Policy Brief No. 1). Tempe, AZ: Education Policy Studies Laboratory: College of Education, Arizona State University. http://www.gvglass.info/papers/yrs.html.

  • Loeb, S., L. Darling-Hammond, and J. Luczak. 2005. “How Teaching Conditions Predict Teacher Turnover in California Schools.” Peabody Journal of Education 80: 44–70.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • McMullen, S.C., K. Rouse, and J. Haan. 2015. “The Distributional Effects of the Multi-Track Year-Round Calendar: A Quantile Regression Approach.” Applied Economic Letters 22: 1188–1192.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • McMullen, S.C., and K.E. Rouse. 2012a. “School Crowding, Year-Round Schooling and Mobile Classroom Use: Evidence from North Carolina.” Economics of Education Review 31: 812–823.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • McMullen, S.C., and K.E. Rouse. 2012b. “The Impact of Year-Round Schooling on Academic Achievement: Evidence from Mandatory School Calendar Conversions.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 4: 230–252.

  • Merino, B. 1983. “The Impact of Year-Round Schooling: A Review.” Urban Education 18: 298–316.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Mitchell, D., and R. Mitchell. 2005. “Student Segregation and Achievement Tracking in Year-Round Schools.” Teachers College Record 107: 529–562.

  • National Association for Year Round Education (NAYRE). 2006. "Creating More Time for Learning: Symposia Powerpoint Presentation." Accessed 24 August, 2012. www.nayre.org/2006conference.htm

  • National Association for Year Round Education (NAYRE). 2007. "Statistical Summaries of Year-Round Education Programs 2006–2007." Accessed 24 August, 2012. www.nayre.org/STATISTICAL%20SUMMARIES%20OF%20YRE%202007.pdf.

  • Nelson, S.R. 1983. An Evaluation of Sheridan County School District Alternative Schedule, 1982–83. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Education Lab.

  • Rivkin, S., E. Hanushek, and J. Kain. 2005. “Teachers, Schools and Academic Achievement.” Econometrica 73: 415–458.

  • Rockoff, J. 2004. “The Impact of Individual Teachers on Student Achievement: Evidence from Panel Data.” American Economic Review 94: 247–252.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Sanders, W., and J. Rivers. 1996. "Cumulative and Residual Effects of Teachers on Future Student Academic Achievement." Research Progress Report. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center.

  • Shields, C.M., and S.L. Oberg. 2000. Year Round Schooling: Promises and Pitfalls. Boston, MA: Scarecrow Press.

  • Skinner, R.R. 2014. Year Round Schools: In Brief. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Report 43588.

  • Smith, A. 2011. "Are Year-Round Schools a Viable Option for Improving Student Achievement, Combating Summer Learning Loss in Disadvantaged Youth, Controlling Expenses, and Reducing Teacher Burnout?" diss., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.

  • Thompson, Paul. 2018. "Effects of Four-Day School Weeks on Achievement: Evidence from Oregon." Working paper, Department of Economics, Oregon State University.

  • von Hippel. 2016. “Year-Round School Calendars: Effects on Summer Learning, Achievement, Parents, Teachers, and Property Values.” In The Summer Slide: What We Know and Can Do about Summer Learning Loss, edited by K. Alexander, S. Pitcock and M. Boulay, Chapter 13. New York: Teachers College Press.

  • Worthen, B.R., and S.W. Zsiray. 1994. What Twenty Years of Educational Studies Reveal about Year-Round Education. Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina Educational Policy Research Center.

Purchase article
Get instant unlimited access to the article.
$42.00
Log in
Already have access? Please log in.


or
Log in with your institution

Journal + Issues

The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy (BEJEAP) is an international forum for scholarship that employs microeconomics to analyze issues in business, consumer behavior and public policy. Topics include the interaction of firms, the functioning of markets, the effects of domestic and international policy and the design of organizations and institutions.

Search