We estimate the effects of year-round school (YRS) calendars on teacher turnover and teacher qualifications for the state of California, finding that YRS results in diminished teacher education and experience. This result is notable as previous research finds negative academic impacts of YRS in California. As context for our findings, we use comparisons with North Carolina, where research has found neutral academic impacts for the same calendar. While we find that schools in both locations hire more teachers to accommodate the calendar, teacher qualifications do not decrease for North Carolina. Our results are therefore consistent with, and can partly explain, evidence on the impact of YRS on student achievement. Additionally, as YRS is implemented in more affluent areas in North Carolina and in disadvantaged populations in California, we use matched samples to show that student demographics do not explain our teacher impacts found for California.
Anderson, D. M., and M. B. Walker. 2015. “Does Shortening the School Week Impact Student Performance? Evidence from the Four-Day School Week.” Education Finance and Policy 10 (3): 314–349.10.1162/EDFP_a_00165)| false
Bellei, C. 2009. “Does Lengthening the School Day Increase Students? Academic Achievement? Results from a Natural Experiment in Chile.” Economics of Education Review 28 (5): 629–640.10.1016/j.econedurev.2009.01.008)| false
Clotfelter, Charles T., Helen F. Ladd, and Jacob L. Vigdor. 2007. “Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement: Longitudinal Analysis with Student Fixed Effects.” Economics of Education Review 26 (6): 673–682.
Clotfelter, Charles T., Helen F. Ladd, and Jacob L. Vigdor. 2007. “Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement: Longitudinal Analysis with Student Fixed Effects.” Economics of Education Review 26 (6): 673–682.10.1016/j.econedurev.2007.10.002)| false
Cooper, Harris, Jeffrey C. Valentine, Kelly Charlton, and April Melson. 2003. “The Effects of Modified School Calendars on Student Achievement and on School and Community Attitudes.” Review of Educational Research 73 (1): 1–52.
Cooper, Harris, Jeffrey C. Valentine, Kelly Charlton, and April Melson. 2003. “The Effects of Modified School Calendars on Student Achievement and on School and Community Attitudes.” Review of Educational Research 73 (1): 1–52.10.3102/00346543073001001)| false
Croninger, R., J. King Rice, A. Rathbun, and M. Nishio. 2007. “Teacher Qualifications and Early Learning: Effects of Certification, Degree, and Experience on First-Grade Student Achievement.” Economics of Education Review 26: 312–324.
Croninger, R., J. King Rice, A. Rathbun, and M. Nishio. 2007. “Teacher Qualifications and Early Learning: Effects of Certification, Degree, and Experience on First-Grade Student Achievement.” Economics of Education Review 26: 312–324.10.1016/j.econedurev.2005.05.008)| false
Daneshvary, Nasser, and T.M. Clauretie. 2001. “Efficiency and Costs in Education: Year-Round versus Traditional Schedules.” Economics of Education Review 20: 279–287.10.1016/S0272-7757(00)00010-8)| false
Darling-Hammond, L. 2000. “Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence.” Journal of Education Policy Analysis 8 (1). 1–44. http://epaa.asa.edu/epaa/v8n1/.10.14507/epaa.v8n1.2000)| false
Donis-Keller, C., and D. L. Silvernail. 2009. Research Brief: A Review of the Evidence on the Four-Day School Week. Portland, ME: Center for Education Policy, Applied Research and Evaluation, University of Southern Maine.
Gilpin, Gregory. 2017. School Capacity, Calendar Conversions, and Teachers' Secondary Employment. Unpublished manuscript. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University–Bozeman.
Goldhaber, D., B. Gross, and D. Player. 2011. “Teacher Career Paths, Teacher Quality, and Persistence in the Classroom: Are Public Schools Keeping Their Best?” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 30: 57–87.
Goldhaber, D., B. Gross, and D. Player. 2011. “Teacher Career Paths, Teacher Quality, and Persistence in the Classroom: Are Public Schools Keeping Their Best?” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 30: 57–87.10.1002/pam.20549)| false
Graves, J. 2011. “Effects of Year-Round Schooling on Disadvantaged Students and the Distribution of Standardized Test Performance.” Economics of Education Review 30: 1281–1305.10.1016/j.econedurev.2011.04.003)| false
Graves, J. 2013b. “The Effects of School Calendar Type on Maternal Employment across Racial Groups: A Story of Child Care Availability.” American Economic Review 103: 279–283. P&P.10.1257/aer.103.3.279)| false
Jensen, V. M. 2013. “Working Longer Makes Students Stronger? The Effects of Ninth Grade Classroom Hours on Ninth Grade Student Performance.” Educational Research 55 (2): 180–194.10.1080/00131881.2013.801244)| false
Koki, S. 1992. Modified School Schedules: A Look at the Research and the Pacific. Honolulu, HI: Pacific Region Educational Lab. Retreived on July 9, 2018 from ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 024707. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED354630.
Kreitzer, A., and G. Glass. 1993. Policy Considerations in Conversion to Year-Round Schools (Policy Brief No. 1). Tempe, AZ: Education Policy Studies Laboratory: College of Education, Arizona State University. http://www.gvglass.info/papers/yrs.html.
Loeb, S., L. Darling-Hammond, and J. Luczak. 2005. “How Teaching Conditions Predict Teacher Turnover in California Schools.” Peabody Journal of Education 80: 44–70.
McMullen, S.C., K. Rouse, and J. Haan. 2015. “The Distributional Effects of the Multi-Track Year-Round Calendar: A Quantile Regression Approach.” Applied Economic Letters 22: 1188–1192.10.1080/13504851.2015.1016204)| false
McMullen, S.C., and K.E. Rouse. 2012a. “School Crowding, Year-Round Schooling and Mobile Classroom Use: Evidence from North Carolina.” Economics of Education Review 31: 812–823.10.1016/j.econedurev.2012.05.005)| false
McMullen, S.C., and K.E. Rouse. 2012b. “The Impact of Year-Round Schooling on Academic Achievement: Evidence from Mandatory School Calendar Conversions.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 4: 230–252.
Merino, B. 1983. “The Impact of Year-Round Schooling: A Review.” Urban Education 18: 298–316.
Sanders, W., and J. Rivers. 1996. "Cumulative and Residual Effects of Teachers on Future Student Academic Achievement." Research Progress Report. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center.
Shields, C.M., and S.L. Oberg. 2000. Year Round Schooling: Promises and Pitfalls. Boston, MA: Scarecrow Press.
Skinner, R.R. 2014. Year Round Schools: In Brief. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Report 43588.
Smith, A. 2011. "Are Year-Round Schools a Viable Option for Improving Student Achievement, Combating Summer Learning Loss in Disadvantaged Youth, Controlling Expenses, and Reducing Teacher Burnout?" diss., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.
Thompson, Paul. 2018. "Effects of Four-Day School Weeks on Achievement: Evidence from Oregon." Working paper, Department of Economics, Oregon State University.
von Hippel. 2016. “Year-Round School Calendars: Effects on Summer Learning, Achievement, Parents, Teachers, and Property Values.” In The Summer Slide: What We Know and Can Do about Summer Learning Loss, edited by K. Alexander, S. Pitcock and M. Boulay, Chapter 13. New York: Teachers College Press.
Worthen, B.R., and S.W. Zsiray. 1994. What Twenty Years of Educational Studies Reveal about Year-Round Education. Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina Educational Policy Research Center.
The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy (BEJEAP) is an international forum for scholarship that employs microeconomics to analyze issues in business, consumer behavior and public policy. Topics include the interaction of firms, the functioning of markets, the effects of domestic and international policy and the design of organizations and institutions.