We study how local environmental pollution affects spatial patterns of economic activities when workers can migrate. Based on a New Economic Geography model, we analytically characterize the stability conditions for three different types of equilibria: symmetric spreading, partial and full agglomeration. We show that the extent of agglomeration crucially depends on the damages caused by local pollution. We thereby provide a unified framework for discussing different relationships between the extent of agglomeration and trade freeness that have been found in the literature.
The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy (BEJEAP) is an international forum for scholarship that employs microeconomics to analyze issues in business, consumer behavior and public policy. Topics include the interaction of firms, the functioning of markets, the effects of domestic and international policy and the design of organizations and institutions.