An empirical note on the long-run relationship between education and religiosity in Christian countries

Dierk Herzer 1
  • 1 Department of Economics, Helmut-Schmidt-University Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
Dierk Herzer


The economics of religion is a relatively new field of research in economics. This note examines whether and how permanent changes in religiosity, measured by church attendance, in the long run are affected by permanent changes in education, measured by three categories: primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Applying panel cointegration techniques to data from 20 Christian countries over the period 1925–1990, it is found that (i) only secondary education has a long-run relationship with religiosity, while there is no long-run relationship between religiosity and primary and tertiary education; (ii) secondary education has a strong negative long-run influence on religiosity; and (iii) long-run causality is unidirectional from secondary education to religiosity.

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The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics publishes significant research and scholarship in theoretical and applied macroeconomics. The range of topics includes business cycle research, economic growth, and monetary economics, as well as topics drawn from the substantial areas of overlap between macroeconomics and international economics, labor economics, finance, development economics, political economy, public economics, econometric theory.