Core/Clad Phosphate Glass Fibres Containing Iron and/or Titanium

Ifty Ahmed 1 , S. S. Shaharuddin 2 , N. Sharmin 1 , D. Furniss 1 , and C. Rudd 1
  • 1 Faculty of Engineering, Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD
  • 2 Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, Kuliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia


Phosphate glasses are novel amorphous biomaterials due to their fully resorbable characteristics, with controllable degradation profiles. In this study, phosphate glasses containing titanium and/or iron were identified to exhibit sufficiently matched thermal properties (glass transition temperature, thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity) which enabled successful co-extrusion of glass billets to form a core/clad preform. The cladding composition for the core/clad preforms were also reversed. Fe clad and Ti clad fibres were successfully drawn with an average diameter of between 30~50 μm. The average cladding annular thickness was estimated to be less than 2 μm. Annealed core/clad fibres were degraded in PBS for a period of 27 days. The strength of the Fe clad fibres appeared to increase from 303 ± 73 MPa to 386 ± 45 MPa after nearly 2 weeks in the dissolution medium (phosphate buffered solution) before decreasing by day 27. The strength of the Ti clad fibres revealed an increase from 236 ± 53 MPa to 295 ± 61 MPa when compared at week 3. The tensile modulus measured for both core/clad fibres ranged between 51 GPa to 60 GPa. During the dissolution study, Fe clad fibres showed a peeling mechanism compared to the Ti clad fibres.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] Knowles J.C., Phosphate Based Glasses for Biomedical Applications, J. Mater. Chem. 2003, 13, 2395-2401

  • [2] Ahmed I., Parsons A.J., Palmer G., Knowles J.C., Walker G.S., Rudd C.D., Weight Loss, Ion Release and Initial Mechanical Properties of a Binary CalciumPhosphate Glass Fiber/PCL Composite, Acta Biomater. 2008, 4, 1307-1314

  • [3] Ahmed I., Lewis M., Olsen I., Knowles J.C., Phosphate Glasses for Tissue Engineering: Part 1. Processing and Characterisation of a Ternary Based P2O5-CaO-Na2O Glass System, Biomaterials 2004, 25, 491-499

  • [4] Franks K., Abrahams I., Knowles J.C., Development of Soluble Glasses for Biomedical Use Part I: In Vitro Solubility Measurement, J. Mater. Sci-Mater. M. 2000, 11, 609-614.

  • [5] Bunker B.C., Arnold G.W., Wilder J.A., Phosphate Glass Dissolution in Aques Solutions, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 1984, 64, 291-316

  • [6] Ahmed I., Parsons A.J., Rudd C.D., Nazhat S.N., Knowles J.C., Guerry P., Smith M.E., Comparison of Phosphate-based Glasses in the Range 50P2O5-(50-x)CaO-xNa2OPrepared Using Different Precursors, Glass Technol-Part A 2008, 49, 63-72

  • [7] Abou Neel E.A., Salih V., Knowles J.C., Phosphate-based glasses. In: Ducheyne P. (Ed.), Comprehensive Biomaterials, 1st ed., Elsevier Science 2011

  • [8] Ahmed I., Collins C.A., Lewis M.P., Olsen I., Knowles J.C., Processing, Characterisation and Biocompatibility of Iron- Phosphate Glass Fibres for Tissue Engineering, Biomaterials 2004, 25, 3223-3232

  • [9] Navarro M., Ginebra M., Planell J.A., Cellular Response to Calcium Phosphate Glasses with Controlled Solubility, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 2003, 67A, 1009-1015

  • [10] Abou Neel E.A., Knowles J.C., Physical and Biocompatibility Studies of Novel Titanium Dioxide Doped Phosphate-based Glasses for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications, J.Mater. Sci- Mater. M. 2008, 19, 377-386

  • [11] Ahmed I., Lewis M., Olsen I., Knowles J.C., Phosphate Glasses for Tissue Engineering: Part 2. Processing and Characterisation of a Ternary based P2O5-CaO-Na2O Glass-fibre System, Biomaterials 2004, 25,501-507

  • [12] Abou Neel E.A., Ahmed I., Pratten J., Nazhat S.N., Knowles J.C., Characterisation of Antibacterial Copper Releasing Degradable Phosphate Glass Fibres, Biomaterials 2005, 26,2247-2254

  • [13] Kobayashi H.Y.L.S., Brauer D.S., Rüssel C., Mechanical Properties of a Degradable Phosphate Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite for Internal Fracture Fixation,Mat. Sci. Eng. C-Mater. 2010, 30,1003-1007

  • [14] Andriano K.P., Daniels A.U., Heller J., Biocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of a Totally Absorbable Composite Material for Orthopaedic Fixation Devices, J. Appl. Biomater. 1992, 3, 197-206

  • [15] Felfel R.M., Ahmed I., Parsons A.J., Haque P., Walker G.S., Rudd C.D., Investigation of Crystallinity, Molecular Weight Change, and Mechanical Properties of PLA/PBG Bioresorbable Composites as Bone Fracture Fixation Plates, J. Biomater. Appl. 2012, 26,765-789

  • [16] Parsons A.J., Ahmed I., Haque P., Fitzpatrick B., Niazi M.I.K., Walker G.S., Rudd C.D., Phosphate Glass Fibre Composites for Bone Repair, J. Bionic Eng. 2009, 6, 318-323

  • [17] Furniss D., Seddon A.B., Towards Monomode Proportioned Fibreoptic Preforms by Extrusion, J. Non- Cryst. Solids, 1999, 256& 257, 232-236.

  • [18] Savage S.D., Miller C.A., Furniss D., Seddon A.B., Extrusion of Chalcogenide Glass Preforms and Drawing to Multimode Optical Fibers, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 2008, 354, 3418-3427

  • [19] Vitale-Brovarone C., Novajra G., Milanese D., Lousteau J., Knowles J.C., Novel Phosphate Glasses with Different Amounts of TiO2 for Biomedical Applications: Dissolution Tests and Proof of Concept of Fibre Drawing, Mat. Sci. Eng. C-Mater. 2011, 31, 434-442

  • [20] Abou Neel E.A., Young A.M., Nazhat S.N., Knowles J.C., A Facile Synthesis Route to Prepare Microtubes from Phosphate Glass Fibres, Adv. Mater. 2007, 19, 2856-2862

  • [21] Mulligan A.M., Wilson M., Knowles J.C., The Effect of Increasing Copper Content in Phosphate-based Glasses on Biofilms of Streptococcus Sanguis, Biomaterials 2003, 24, 1797-1807

  • [22] Ahmed A.A., Ali A.A., Mahmoud D.A.R., El-Fiqi A.M., Preparation and Characterization of Antibacterial P2O5-CaO-Na2OAg2O Glasses, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 2011, 98A, 132-142

  • [23] Moss R.M., Structural Characteristics of Antibacterial Bioresorbable Phosphate Glass, Adv. Funct. Mater. 2008, 18, 634- 639

  • [24] Ahmed I., Ready D.,Wilson M., Knowles J.C., Antimicrobial Effect of Silver-doped Phosphate-based Glasses, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A 2006, 79A, 618-626

  • [25] Ahmed I., Abou Neel E.A., Valappil S.P., Nazhat S.N., Pickup D.M., Carta D., Carroll D.L., Newport R.J., Smith M.E., Knowles J.C., The Structure and Properties of Silver-Doped Phosphatebased Glasses, J. Mater. Sci. 2007, 42, 9827-9835

  • [26] Wray P., ’Cotton candy’ that heals?, Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 2011, 90, 25-28

  • [27] Gent A.N., Theory of the Parallel Plate Viscometer, Brit J App Phys 1960, 11, 85-87

  • [28] Burling L., Novel Phosphate Glasses for Bone Regeneration Applications, PhD thesis, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK, 2005

  • [29] Mairaj A.K., Feng X., Hewak D.W., Extruded ChannelWaveguides in a Neodymium-doped Lead-Silicate Glass for Integrated Optic Applications, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2003, 83, 3450-3452

  • [30] Lee E.T.Y., Taylor E.R.M., Two-die Assembly for the Extrusion of Glasses with Dissimilar Thermal Properties for Fibre Optic Preforms, J. Mater. Process Tech. 2007, 184, 325-329

  • [31] Paek U.C., Kurkjian C.R., Calculation of Cooling Rate and Induced Stresses in Drawing of Optical Fibre, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 1975, 58, 330-335

  • [32] Jordery S., Naftaly M., Jha A., A Review of Optical and Thermal Properties of Cadmium-Mixed Halide Glass Host for the 1.3¯I 1/4m Pr3+-doped Amplifier, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 1996, 196, 199-203

  • [33] Daly J.C., Fiber Optics, Taylor & Francis Ltd., Boca Raton, 1984

  • [34] Kurkjian C.R., Mechanical Properties of Phosphate Glasses, J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 2000, 263 & 264, 207-212

  • [35] Pukh V., Baikova L., Kireenko M., Tikhonova L., On the Kinetics of Crack Growth in Glass, Glass Phys. Chem 2009, 35, 560-566

  • [36] Orcel G., and Biswas D., Influence of Processing Parameters on the Strength of Fluoride Glass Fibers, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 1991, 74, 1373-1377

  • [37] Wang J., Prasad S., Kiang K., Pattnaik R.K., Toulouse J., Jain H., Source of Optical Loss in Tellurite Glass Fibers, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 2006, 352, 510-513

  • [38] Barton G.W., Law S.H., McNamara P., Phan T.N., Measurement and Control Challenges for the Specialty Optical Fibre Industry in the 21st Century, Proceedings of the 5th Asian Control Conference, (20-23 July 2004, Melbourne, Australia), 2004, 1137-1144

  • [39] Ahmed I., Cronin P., Abou Neel E.A., Parsons A.J., Knowles J., Rudd, C.D., Retention of Mechanical Properties and Cytocompatibility of a Phosphate-based Glass Fibre/Polylactic Acid Composite, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B 2009, 89, 18-27

  • [40] Abou Neel E.A., Chrzanowski W., Georgiou G., Dalby M.J., Knowles J.C., In Vitro Biocompatibility and Mechanical Performance of Titanium Doped High Calcium Oxide Metaphosphate- Based Glasses, J. Tissue Eng. 2010,

  • [41] Hayden J.S., Marker III A.J., Suratwala T.I., Campbell J.H., Surface Tensile Layer Generation During Thermal Annealing of Phosphate Glass, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 2000, 263& 264, 228-239

  • [42] Cozien-Cazuc S., Characterisation of Resorbable Phosphate Glass Fibers, PhD thesis, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK, 2006

  • [43] Colaizzi J., Matthewson M.J., Iqbal T., Shahriari M.R., Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Fluoride Glass Fibers, Proceedings of The International Society for Optical Engineering (5-6 Sept 1991, Boston, USA), 1991, 26-33

  • [44] Karabulut M., Melnik E., Stefan R., Marasinghe G.K., Ray C.S., Kurkjian C.R., Day D.E., Mechanical and Structural Properties of Phosphate Glasses, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 2001, 288, 8-17

  • [45] Kordes E., Vogel W. and Feterowsk, Physikalisch-chemische Untersuchungen über die Eigenschaften und den Feinbau von Phosphatgläsern, Z. Elektrochem, Vol 57, Issue 4, (1953) pp 282.


Journal + Issues