DNA ploidy level variability of some fescues (Festuca subg. Festuca, Poaceae) from Central and Southern Europe measured in fresh plants and herbarium specimens

  • 1 Faculty of Science, Institute of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-61137, Brno, Czech Republic

Abstract

Using flow cytometry in fresh plants and herbarium vouchers, DNA ploidy levels for 411 individuals of 44 taxa of the genus Festuca, including 4 natural hybrids, originating from 237 sites in Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Switzerland were estimated. The following taxa and DNA ploidy levels are reported: F. airoides (2n ≈ 2x), F. alpestris (2n ≈ 2x), F. alpina s.l. (2n ≈ 2x), F. amethystina subsp. amethystina (2n ≈ 4x), F. bosniaca subsp. bosniaca (2n ≈ 2x), F. brevipila (2n ≈ 6x), F. bucegiensis (2n ≈ 2x), F. carnuntina (2n ≈ 6x), F. csikhegyensis (2n ≈ 4x), F. csikhegyensis × F. eggleri (2n ≈ 4x), F. dalmatica (2n ≈ 4x), F. duvalii (2n ≈ 4x), F. eggleri (2n ≈ 2x, 4x), F. filiformis (2n ≈ 2x), F. glauca (2n ≈ 6x), F. heterophylla (2n ≈ 4x), F. inops (2n ≈ 2x), F. laevigata (2n ≈ 8x), F. laxa (2n ≈ 4x), F. lemanii (2n ≈ 6x), F. norica (2n ≈ 2x), F. ovina subsp. ovina (2n ≈ 2x), F. ovina subsp. guesfalica (2n ≈ 4x), F. ovina × F. pallens (2n ≈ 4x), F. pallens (2n ≈ 2x, 3x), F. pallens × F. pseudodalmatica (2n ≈ 3x, 4x), F. pirinica (2n ≈ 2x), F. polesica (2n ≈ 2x), F. psammophila subsp. dominii (2n ≈ 2x), F. pseudodalmatica (2n ≈ 4x), F. pseudovina (2n ≈ 2x), F. quadriflora (2n ≈ 4x), F. rupicola (2n ≈ 6x), F. rupicola × F. vaginata (2n ≈ 3x, 4x), F. saxatilis (2n ≈ 6x), F. stricta subsp. bauzanina (2n ≈ 8x), F. supina (2n ≈ 4x), F. tatrae (2n ≈ 2x), F. valesiaca (2n ≈ 2x), F. versicolor subsp. pallidula (2n ≈ 2x), F. versicolor subsp. versicolor (2n ≈ 2x), F. violacea subsp. puccinellii (2n ≈ 2x), F. wagneri (2n ≈ 4x), F. xanthina (2n ≈ 2x). In F. pallens, up to 12-year-old herbarium specimens were proved to be suitable for DNA ploidy level measurements with flow cytometry.

DNA ploidy levels of F. bucegiensis, F. bosniaca, and F. versicolor subsp. pallidula are reported here for the first time. The taxonomy of some polyploid complexes and several records of mixed ploidy level populations are briefly discussed. Festuca pseudodalmatica and its hybrid F. × krizoviensis were first recognised as native to the Czech Republic, and F. brevipila as native to Hungary. Also some new records of F. filiformis, F. brevipila, and F. wagneri from Slovakia are reported.

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