Reciprocal contamination by invasive plants: analysis of trade exchange between Slovakia and Romania

Peter Ferus 1 , Culiţă Sîrbu 2 , Pavol Eliáš jr. 3 , Jana Konôpková 1 , Ľuba Ďurišová 3 , Costel Samuil 2  and Adrian Oprea 4
  • 1 Mlyňany Arboretum SAS, Institute of Forest Ecology SAS, Vieska nad Žitavou 178, SK-95152 Slepčany, Slovakia
  • 2 Department of Plant Science, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Mihail Sadoveanu Alley 3, 700490 Iaşi, Romania
  • 3 Department of Botany, Slovak Agricultural University, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK-94976 Nitra, Slovakia
  • 4 Botanical Garden, University Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Dumbrava Roşie st. 7-9, 700 487 Iaşi, Romania


In this work, potential contamination by invasive plant propagules as a result of trade exchange between Slovakia and Romania, was assessed. National lists, describing biology and ecology of 30 worst invasive plant taxa, were formulated, and trading in period 2006-2010 between countries analysed. Using norms for commodity impurity level, information on species habitat occupancy and literature data dealing with seed/fruit attachment on roads we calculated then potential invasive plant propagule export (PE) for each taxon. We found three fold higher total good export from Slovakia than in opposite direction, increasing export of commodities potentially containing invasive plant propagules exported from Romania to Slovakia and rise of road compared to railway transport. PEs for Slovak invasive plant taxa were one-two orders higher than those for Romanian ones. Potentially most exported taxa for Slovakia were: Amaranthus sp., Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Galinsoga sp., Kochia scoparia and Sorghum halepense (tens to hundreds tonnes each). And these could mostly be exported from Romania: Amaranthus sp., Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Artemisia annua, Conyza canadensis, Cuscuta campestris, Datura stramonium, Erigeron annus, Galinsoga sp., Iva xanthiifolia, Kochia scoparia, Lycium barbarum, Sorghum halepense, Veronica persica and Xanthium orientale subsp. italicum (units to tens tonnes each). High PE was significantly associated with cereals export. Our formula for PE is applicable for any inter- and intra-continental trade exchange.

  • Ali M.M., Murphy K.J. & Langendorff J. 1999. Interrelations of river ship traffic with aquatic plants in the River Nile, Egypt. Hydrobiol. 415: 93-100.

  • Anastasiu P., Negrean G., Făgăraş M., Samoila C. & Cogălniceanu D. 2009. Constan,sa harbour (Romania) as a major gateway and reservoir for alien plant species. Acta Hort. Bot. Bucurest. 36: 41-60.

  • Anastasiu P., Negrean G., Samoila C., Memedemin D. & Cogălniceanu D. 2011. A comparative analysis of alien plant species along the Romanian Black Sea coastal area. The role of harbours. J. Coast. Conserv. doi. 10.1007/s11852-011-0149-0.

  • Anghel G., Chirilă C., Ciocârlan V. & Ulinici A. 1972. Buruienile din culturile agricole şi combaterea lor. Ceres Publishing House, Bucureşti, 355 pp.

  • Barać S., Biberdžić M., Vuković A., Dikić A. & Milenković B. 2013. The results of testing the harvesting device work quality of the combines ZMAJ 133 and Claas Dominator 48. Res. J. Agric. Sci. 45 (3): 3-9.

  • Barrat-Segretain M.H., Elder A., Sagnes P. & Puijalon S. 2002. Comparison of three life-history traits of invasive Elodea canadensis Michx. and Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) H.St.John. Aquat. Bot. 74: 299-313.

  • Benkovičova Ľ. (ed.) 2007. Štatisticka ročenka Slovenskej republiky 2007. Štatisticky urad Slovenskej republiky, Bratislava, 692 pp.

  • Benkovičova Ľ. (ed.) 2008. Štatisticka ročenka Slovenskej republiky 2008. Štatisticky urad Slovenskej republiky, Bratislava, 680 pp.

  • Benkovičova Ľ. (ed.) 2009. Štatisticka ročenka Slovenskej republiky 2009. Štatisticky urad Slovenskej Republiky, Bratislava 712 pp.

  • Benkovičova Ľ. (ed) 2010. Štatisticka ročenka Slovenskej republiky 2010. Štatisticky urad Slovenskej republiky, Bratislava, 686 pp.

  • Benkovičova Ľ. (ed) 2011. Štatisticka ročenka Slovenskej republiky 2011. Štatisticky urad Slovenskej republiky, Bratislava, 672 pp.

  • Binimelis R., Born W., Monterosso I. & Rodriguez-Labajos B. 2007. Socio-economic impact and assessment of biological invasions, pp. 331-350. In: Nentwig W. (ed.), Biological Invasions. Ecological Studies vol. 193, Springer, Heidelberg.

  • Blackshaw R.E. & Rode L.M. 1991. Effect of ensiling and rumen digestion by cattle on weed seed viability. Weed Sci. 39: 104-108.

  • Colunga-Garcia M., Haack R.A. & Adelaja A.O. 2009. Freight transportation and the potential for invasions of exotic insects in urban and periurban forests of the United States. J. Econ. Entom. 102: 237-246.

  • Csontos P., Tamas J. & Balogh L. 2007. Thousand-seed weight records of species from the flora of Hungary. II. Dicotyledopsida. Studia Bot. Hung. 38: 179-189.

  • Davies C.E., Moss D. & O’HillM. 2004. EUNIS habitat classification revised 2004. European Environment Agency, European Topic Centre on Nature Protection and Biodiversity.

  • Davis M.A., Grime P. & Thomson K. 2000. Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. J. Ecol. 88: 528-534.

  • Eliaš P. 2009. Bioticke invazie. VES, SPU Nitra, 192 pp. Essl F., Dullinger S., RabitschW., Hulme P.E., Hübler K., Jarošik V., Kleinbauer I., Krausmann F., Kühn I., Nentwig W., Vilà M., Genovesi P., Gherardi F., Desprez-Loustau M.L., Roques A. & Pyšek P. 2011. Socioeconomic legacy yields an invasion debt. PNAS 108: 203-207.

  • Forman R.T.T. & Alexander L.E. 1998. Roads and their major ecological effects. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 29: 207-231.

  • Godefroid S., Phartyal S.S. & Koedam N. 2006. Depth distribution and composition of seed banks under different tree layers in a managed temperate forest ecosystem. Acta Ecol. 29: 283-292.

  • Gojdičova E., Cvachova A. & Karasova E. 2002. Zoznam nepovodnych, invaznych a expanzivnych cievnatych rastlin Slovenska. Ochrana Prirody 21: 59-79.

  • Greuter W. 2003. The Euro+Med treatment Senecioneae and the minor Compositae tribes - generic concepts and required new names, with an addendum to Cardueae. Willdenowia 33: 245-250.

  • Gurevitch J. & Padilla D.K. 2004. Are invasive species a major cause of extinction? Trends Ecol. Evol. 19: 470-474.

  • Hulme P.E., Bacher S., Kenis M., Klotz S., Kühn I., Minchin D., Nentwig W., Olenin S., Panov V., Pergl J., Pyšek P., Roques A., Sol D., Solarz W. & Vilà M. 2008. Grasping at the routes of biological invasions: a framework for integrating pathways into policy. J. App. Ecol. 45: 403-414.

  • Hulme P.E. 2009. Trade, transport and trouble: managing invasive species pathways in an era of globalization. J. App. Ecol. 46: 10-18.

  • Hulme P.E., Nentwig W., Pyšek P. & Vilà M. 2009. Common market, shared problems: time for a coordinated response to biological invasions in Europe? In: Pyšek P. & Pergl J. (eds.) Biological Invasions: Towards a Synthesis. Neobiota 8: 3-19.

  • Hulme P.E. 2014. Alien plants confront expectations of climate change impacts. Trends Plant Sci. 19: 547-549.

  • Jehlik V. (ed) 1998. Cizi expanzivni plevele Česke republiky a Slovenske republiky. Academia, Praha, 506 pp.

  • Jehlik V. 2013. Die Vegetation und Flora der Flussh¨afen Mitteleuropas. Praha, Academia, 542 pp.

  • Khan I., O’Donnell C., Navie S., George D., Nguyen T. & Adkins S. 2013. Weed seed spread by vehicles, pp. 94-97. In: O’Brien M., Vitelli J., Thornby D. (eds), Proceeding of the 12th Queensland Weed Symposium.

  • Kohaut P. 2001. Buriny Slovenska: Určovanie podľa kličnych listov. Piešťany, Naše pole s.r.o., 99 pp.

  • Kolar C.S. & Lodge M.L. 2001. Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends Ecol. Evol. 16: 199-204.

  • Kowarik I. & von der Lippe M. 2007. Pathways in plant invasion, pp. 29-48. In: Nentwig W. (ed.), Biological Invasions.

  • Ecological Studies vol. 193, Springer, Heidelberg.

  • Lacko-Bartošova M. & Krošlak I. 2001. Hodnotenie zaburinenosti v rozdielnych systemoch hospodarenia. J. Centr. Eur. Agric. 2 (3-4): 173-182.

  • Lambdon P.W., Pyšek P., Basnou C., Hejda M., Arianoutsou M., Essl F., Jarošik V., Pergl J., Winter M., Anastasiu P., Andriopoulos P., Bazos I., Brundu G., Celesti-Grapow L., Chassot P., Delipetrou P., Josefsson M., Kark S., Klotz S., Kokkoris Y., K¨uhn I., Marchante H., Perglova I., Pino J., Vilà M., Zikos A., Roy D. & Hulme P.E. 2008. Alien flora of Europe: species diversity, temporal trends, geographical patterns and research needs. Preslia 80: 101-149.

  • Leuven R.S.E.W., van der Velde G., Baijens I., Snijders J., van der Zwart C., Lenders H.J.R. & bij de Vaate A. 2009. The river Rhine: a global highway for dispersal of aquatic invasive species. Biol. Inv. 11: 1989-2008.

  • Lin W., Zhou X. & Xu R. 2007. Fast economic development accelerates biological invasions in China. PloS ONE 11: e1208.

  • Liška E., Černuško K., Cigľar J. & Borecky V. 1995. Atlas burin. VŠP Nitra, 276 pp.

  • Lockwood J.L., Cassey P. & Blackburn T. 2005. The role of propagule pressure in explaining species invasions. Trends Ecol. Evol. 20: 223-228.

  • Mack R.N. & Lonsdale W.M. 2001. Humans as global plant dispersers: getting more than we bargained for. BioSci. 51 (2): 95-102.

  • Medvecka J., Kliment J., Majekova J., Halada Ľ., Zaliberova M., Gojdičova E., Ferakova V. & Jarolimek I. 2012. Inventory of the alien flora of Slovakia. Preslia 84: 257-309.

  • Meyerson L.A. & Mooney H.A. 2007. Invasive alien species in the era of globalization. Front. Ecol. 5: 199-208.

  • Moravcova L., Pyšek P., Jarošik V., Havličkova V. & Zakravsky P. 2010. Reproductive characteristics of neophytes in the Czech Republic: traits of invasive and non-invasive species. Preslia 82: 365-390.

  • Nehring S. 2005. International shipping - a risk for aquatic biodiversity in Germany. In: Nentwig, W. et al. (eds), Biological Invasions - From ecology to control. Neobiota 6: 125-143.

  • Olson B.E., Wallander R.T. & Kott R.W. 1997. Recovery of leafy spurge seed from sheep. J. Range Manage. 50: 10-15.

  • Oravec M., Bartko M. & Slamka M. 2012. Postupy intenzifikacie produkcie drevnej biomasy na energeticke využitie. Lesnicky vyskumny ustav Zvolen, 64 pp.

  • Oťahelova H., Valachovič M. & Hrivnak R. 2007. The impact of environmental factors on the distribution pattern of aquatic plants along Danube river corridors (Slovakia). Limnologica 37: 290-302.

  • Pejchar L. & Mooney H.A. 2009. Invasive species, ecosystem services and human well-being. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24: 497-504.

  • Pimentel D. 2009. Invasive plants: their role in species extinctions and economic losses to agriculture in the USA, pp. 1-7. In: Inderjit V. (ed.) Management of invasive weeds. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., Netherlands.

  • Pleasant J.M.T. & Schlather K.J. 1994. Incidence of weed seed in cow (Bos sp.) manure and its importance as a weed source for cropland. Weed Tech. 8: 304-310.

  • Pyšek P. & Richardson D.M. 2006. The biogeography of naturalization in alien plants. J. Biogeogr. 33: 2040-2050.

  • Pyšek P. & Richardson D.M. 2007. Traits associated with invasiveness in alien plants: where do we stand? pp. 97-126.

  • In: Nentwig W. (ed.), Biological Invasions. Ecological Studies vol. 193, Springer, Heidelberg.

  • Pyšek P., Jarošik V. & Pergl J. 2011. Alien plants introduced by different pathways differ in invasion success: unintentional introductions as a treat to natural areas. PLos ONE 6: e24890

  • Pyšek P., Jarošik V., Hulme P.E., Kühn I., Wild J., Arianoutsou M., Bacher S., Chiron F., Didžiulis V., Essl F., Genovesi P., Gherardi F., Hejda M., Kark S., Lambdon P.W., Desprez- Loustau M.-L., Nentwig W., Pergl J., Poboljšaj K., Rabitsch W., Roques A., Roy D.B., Shirley S., Solarz W., Vilà M. & Winter M. 2010. Disentangling the role of environmental and human pressures on biological invasions across Europe. Proc.Nat. Acad. Sci. 107: 12157-12162.

  • Rath B., Janauer G.A., Pall K. & Berczik A. 2003. The aquatic macrophyte vegetation in the Old Danube/Hungarian bank and other water bodies of the Szigetk¨oz wetlands. Archiv Hydrobiol. 14: 129-142.

  • Rejmanek M. 2000. Invasive plants: approaches and predictions. Austr. Ecol. 25: 497-506.

  • Rew L.J. 2011. Developing functional parameters for a sciencebased vehicle cleaning program to reduce transport of nonindigenous invasive plant species. SERDP Project RC-1545 - Final report, Montana State University, 58 pp.

  • Richardson D.M., Pyšek P., Rejmanek M., Barbour M.G. Panetta, F.D. & West C.J. 2000. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Divers. Distrib. 6: 93-107.

  • Rikli M. 1904. Die Anthropochoren und der Formenkreis des Nasturtium palustre DC. Botanisches Centralblatt 45: 12-14.

  • Sârbu A., Smarandache D., Janauer G. & Pascale G. 2006. Elodea nuttallii (Planchon) St. John - a competitive hydrophyte in the Romanian Danube river corridors. In: Proceedings 36th International Conference of IAD. Austrian Committee DanubeResearch/ IAD, Vienna, 4-8 September 2006, pp. 107-111.

  • Scalera R. 2010 How much is Europe spending on invasive alien species? Biol. Inv. 12: 173-177.

  • Sellens L.J., Markiewicz A.J. & Landis W.G. 2007. Risk evaluation of invasive species transport across the U.S. - Canada border in Washington state. Western Washington University, Research report No. 2, 40 pp.

  • Sârbu C. & Oprea A. 2011. Plante adventiveîn flora României. Ion Ionescu de la Brad Publishing House, Iaşi, 733 pp.

  • Stohlgren T.J., Pyšek P., Kartesz J., Nishino M., Pauchard A., Winter M., Pino J., Richardson D.M.,Wilson J.R.U., Murray B.R., Phillips M.L., Ming-Yang L., Celesti-Grapow L. & Font X. 2011. Widespread plant species: natives versus aliens in our changing world. Biol. Inv. 13: 1931-1944.

  • Taylor K., Brummer T., Taper M., Wing A. & Rew L.J. 2012. Human-mediated long-distance dispersal: an empirical evaluation of seed dispersal by vehicles. Diversity Distrib. 1-10.

  • Thomas S.M., Tjaden N.B., van den Bos S. & Beierkuhnlein C. 2014. Implementing cargo movement into climate based risk assessment of vector-borne diseases. Int. J., Environ. Res.

  • Public Health 11: 3360-3374.

  • Thuiller W., Richardson D.W. & Midgley G.F. 2007. Will climate change promote alien plant invasions? pp. 197-216. In: Nentwig W. (ed), Biological Invasions. Ecological Studies vol. 193, Springer, Heidelberg.

  • Török P., Miglecz T., Valko O., Toth K., Kelemen A., Albert A.-J., Matus G., Molnar A., Ruprecht E., Papp L., Deak B., Horvath O., Takacs A., Hüse B. & Toth B. 2013. New thousand-seed weight records of the Pannonian flora and their application in analysing social behavior types. Acta Bot. Hun. 55: 429-472.

  • Tutin T.G., Heywood V.H., Burges N.A., Moore D.M., Valentine D.H., Walters S.M. & Webb D.A. (eds) 1964-1980. Flora Europaea 1-5. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2524 pp.

  • Vilà M. & Pujadas J. 2001. Land-use and socio-economic correlates of plant invasions in European and North African countries. Biol. Conserv. 100: 397-401. Voineagu V. (ed.) 2007. Statistical Yearbook of Romania 2010. National Institute of Statistics, Bucharest, 879 pp.

  • Voineagu V. (ed.) 2008. Statistical Yearbook of Romania 2010. National Institute of Statistics, Bucharest, 868 pp.

  • Voineagu V. (ed.) 2009. Statistical Yearbook of Romania 2010. National Institute of Statistics, Bucharest, 1084 pp.

  • Voineagu V. (ed.) 2010. Statistical Yearbook of Romania 2010. National Institute of Statistics, Bucharest, 710 pp.

  • Voineagu V. (ed.) 2011. Statistical Yearbook of Romania 2011. National Institute of Statistics, Bucharest, 734 pp. von der Lippe M. & Kowarik I. 2006. Long-distance dispersal of plants by vehicles as a driver of plant invasions. Conserv. Biol. 21: 986-996.

  • Vukov D., Boža P., Igić R. & Anačkov G. 2008. The distribution and the abundance of hydrophytes along the Danube river in Serbia. Cent. Eur. J. Biol. 3: 177-187.

  • Westphal M. Browne M., MacKinnon K. & Noble I. 2008. The link between international trade and the global distribution of invasive alien species. Biol. Inv. 10: 391-398.

  • Zwaenepoel A., Roovers P. & Hermy M. 2006. Motor vehicles as vectors of plant species from road verges in suburban environment. Basic Appl. Ecol. 7: 83-93.

Purchase article
Get instant unlimited access to the article.
Log in
Already have access? Please log in.

Log in with your institution

Journal + Issues