A conceptual model of new hypothesis on the evolution of biodiversity

Roberto Cazzolla Gatti 1
  • 1 Biological Diversity and Ecology Laboratory, Bio-Clim-Land Centre of Excellence, Tomsk State University (TSU), 36 Lenin Prospekt, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Roberto Cazzolla Gatti

Abstract

The mechanisms that allow species to evolve, coexist, compete, cooperate or become extinct are becoming always more understood. At the same time, the factors that allow species to coexist in a given time within the same environment are still debated. Many theories and hypotheses suggest that competition tends to differentiate the ecological requirements after repeated interactions and to allow the presence of many different species in the same area (i.e. biodiversity). After all, a thorough understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of biodiversity, which could somehow explain the current distribution patterns and mechanisms of coexistence, must consider the biogeographic and phylogenetic approaches. Here I propose a new graphic model that reviews the past and present, and sometimes debated, trends in biodiversity and evolutionary science, pointing out the importance of the avoidance of competition, the biological history, the endogenosymbiosis and the three-dimensionality as the main forces that structure ecosystems and allow the evolution of biological diversity. This model is an attempt to explain and summarize some of the mechanisms that underlie the current presence of the awesome number of species that currently inhabit our planet.

  • Barraclough T.G. 2015. How do species interactions affect evolutionary dynamics across whole communities? Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 46: 25–48. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-112414-054030

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Barton N.H. & Charlesworth B. 1984. Genetic revolutions, founder effects, and speciation. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 15: 133–164. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.es.15.110184.001025

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bertalanffy L. von 1934. Untersuchungen über die Gesetzlichkeit desWachstums. I. Allgemeine Grundlagen der Theorie; mathematische und physiologische Gesetzlichkeiten des Wachstums bei Wassertieren. Wilhelm Roux’ Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen 131 (4): 613–652. DOI: 10.1007/BF00650112

  • Bertalanffy L. von 1969. General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications. George Braziller, New York, xvi + 289 pp.

  • Bolnick D.I. & Fitzpatrick B.M. 2007. Sympatric speciation: models and empirical evidence. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 38: 459–487. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.38.091206.095 804

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Branch G.M. 1975. Mechanisms reducing intraspecific competition in Patella spp.: migration, differentiation and territorial behaviour. J. Anim. Ecol. 44 (2): 575–600. DOI: 10.2307/3612

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bruno J.F., Stachowicz J.J. & Bertness M.D. 2003. Inclusion of facilitation into ecological theory. Trends Ecol. Evol. 18 (3): 119–125. DOI: 10.1016/S0169-5347(02)00045-9

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Cazzolla Gatti R.C. 2011. Evolution is a cooperative process: the biodiversity-related niches differentiation theory (BNDT) can explain why. Theoretical Biology Forum 104 (1): 35–43. PMID: 22220353

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Cazzolla Gatti R. 2012. Biodiversity is a cauliflower under the sunlight. Nature Preceedings, precedings.nature.com. DOI: http://hdl.handle.net/10101/npre.2012.6917.1

  • Cazzolla Gatti R.C. 2014. Biodiversitá. In teoria e in pratica. I edizione ottobre 2014 – Libreria Universitaria it Edizioni [Biodiversity. In theory and in practice. 1st ed. October 2014]. Padova (Italy), 358 pp. ISBN: 978-88-6292-536-5

  • Chesson P. 2000. Mechanisms of maintenance of species diversity. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 31: 343–366. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.31.1.343

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Connell J.H. 1980. Diversity and the coevolution of competitors, or the ghost of competition past. Oikos 35 (2): 131–138. DOI: 10.2307/3544421

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Courtillot V. & Gaudemer Y. 1996. Effects of mass extinctions on biodiversity. Nature 381: 146–148. DOI: 10.1038/381146a0

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Darwin C. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (1st ed.). John Murray, London (UK), 502 pp.

  • Darwin C. & Wallace A.R. 1858. On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 3: 46–50. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1858.tb02500.x

  • Didham R.K., Tylianakis J.M., Hutchison M.A., Ewers R.M. & Gemmell N.J. 2005. Are invasive species the drivers of ecological change? Trends Ecol. Evol. 20 (9): 470–474. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2005.07.006

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Durant S.M. 2000. Living with the enemy: avoidance of hyenas and lions by cheetahs in the Serengeti. Behav. Ecol. 11 (6): 624–632. DOI: 10.1093/beheco/11.6.624

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Eldredge N. & Gould S.J. 1972. Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism, pp. 82–115. In: Schopf T.J.M. (ed.), Models in Paleobiology, Freeman, Cooper & Co., San Francisco, 250 pp. ISBN-10: 0877353255, ISBN-13: 978-0877353256

  • Erwin D.H. 2001. Lessons from the past: biotic recoveries from mass extinctions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98 (10): 5399–5403. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.091092698

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Felsenstein J. 1981. Skepticism towards Santa Rosalia, or why are there so few kinds of animals? Evolution 35 (1): 124–138.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Forsey G.F. 2013. Fossil evidence for the escalation and origin of marine mutualisms. J. Nat. Hist. 47 (25-28): 1833–1864. DOI: 10.1080/00222933.2013.766276

  • Gause G.F. 1934. The Struggle for Existence. Hafner Publishing Company, New York (USA), 163 pp.

  • Gavrilets S. & Losos J.B. 2009. Adaptive radiation: contrasting theory with data. Science 323 (5915): 732–737. DOI: 10.1126/science.1157966.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Generoso W., Shelby M.D. & de Serres F.J. (eds) 1980. DNA Repair and Mutagenesis in Eukaryotes (Vol. 15). Springer Science & Business Media, Germany. 458 pp. ISBN: 978-1-4684-3844-4

  • Gorur G., Dickinson H. & Antonovics J. 1973. Theoretical considerations of sympatric divergence. Am Nat. 107 (954): 256–274. DOI: 10.1086/282829

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Gurevitch J. & Padilla D.K. 2004. Are invasive species a major cause of extinctions?. Trends Ecol. Evol. 19 (9): 470–474. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2004.07.005

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Hamilton W.D. 2002. Narrow Roads of Gene Land. Vol. 2: Evolution of Sex. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, UK, 928 pp. ISBN-10: 0198503369, ISBN-13: 978-0198503361

  • Hardin G. 1960. The competitive exclusion principle. Science 131 (3409): 1292–1297. DOI: 10.1126/science.131.3409.1292

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Holmes E.E., Lewis M.A., Banks J.E. & Veit R.R. 1994. Partial differential equations in ecology: spatial interactions and population dynamics. Ecology 75 (1): 17–29. DOI: 10.2307/1939378

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Hubbell S. 1980. Seed predation and the coexistence of tree species in tropical forests. Oikos 35 (2): 214–229. DOI: 10.2307/3544429

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Hubbell S.P. 2001. The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography (MPB-32). Vol. 32. Princeton University Press (USA). 392 pp. ISBN: 9780691021287

  • Hubert N., Calcagno V., Etienne R.S. & Mouquet N. 2015. Metacommunity speciation models and their implications for diversification theory. Ecol. Lett. 18 (8): 864–881. DOI: 10.1111/ele.12458

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Hutchinson G.E. 1961. The paradox of plankton. Am. Nat. 95 (882.): 137–146. DOI: 10.1086/282171

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Jackson J.B.C. & Johnson K.G. 2001. Measuring past biodiversity. Science 293 (5539): 2401–2403. DOI: 10.1126/science. 1063789

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Kirkpatrick M. & Ravigne V. 2002. Speciation by natural and sexual selection: Models and experiments. Am. Nat. 159 (S3): S22–S35. DOI: 10.1086/338370

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Kottelat M. 1995. Systematic studies and biodiversity: the need for a pragmatic approach. J. Nat. Hist. 29 (3): 565–569. DOI: 10.1080/00222939500770181

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Lambin X., Aars J. & Piertney S.B. 2001. Dispersal, intraspecific competition, kin competition and kin facilitation: a review of the empirical evidence. Part 2, pp. 110–122. In: Clobert J., Danchin E., Dhondt A.A. & Nichols J.D. (eds), Dispersal, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 480 pp. ISBN-10: 0198506597, ISBN-13: 9780198506591

  • Levene H. 1953. Genetic equilibrium when more than one ecological niche is available. Am. Nat. 87 (836): 331–333. DOI: 10.1086/281792

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Levine J.M. & HilleRisLambers J. 2009. The importance of niches for the maintenance of species diversity. Nature 461: 254–257. DOI: 10.1038/nature08251

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • MacArthur R.H. & Wilson E.O. 1967. The Theory of Island Biogeography. Vol. 1. Princeton University Press (USA), 203 pp. ISBN: 0691088365, 9780691088365

  • Margulis L. & Sagan D. 2008. Acquiring Genomes: A Theory of the Origins of Species. Basic Books (USA), 256 pp. ISBN: 0786722606, 9780786722600

  • Maynard Smith J. 1966. Sympatric speciation. Am. Nat. 100 (916): 637–650. DOI: 10.1086/282457

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • McCann K.S. 2000. The diversity–stability debate. Nature 405 (6783): 228–233. DOI: 10.1038/35012234

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Meyerson L.A. & Mooney H.A. 2007. Invasive alien species in an era of globalization. Front. Ecol. Environ. 5 (4): 199–208. DOI: 10.1890/1540-9295(2007)5[199:IASIAE]2.0.CO;2

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Nowak M.A., Tarnita C.E. & Wilson E.O. 2010. The evolution of eusociality. Nature 466 (7310): 1057–1062. DOI: 10.1038/nature09205

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Nuismer S.L. & Harmon L.J. 2015. Predicting rates of interspecific interaction from phylogenetic trees. Ecol. Lett. 18 (1): 17–28. DOI: 10.1111/ele.12384

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Pilkey O.H. & Pilkey-Jarvis L. 2007. Useless Arithmetic: Why Environmental Scientists can’t Predict the Future. Columbia University Press (USA), 248 pp. ISBN: 9780231506991

  • Platnick N.I. 1991. Patterns of biodiversity: tropical vs temperate. J. Nat. Hist. 25 (5): 1083–1088. DOI: 10.1080/0022293 9100770701

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Purvis A. & Hector A. 2000. Getting the measure of biodiversity. Nature 405 (6783): 212–219. DOI: 10.1038/35012221

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Raxworthy C.J., Ingram C., Rabibisoa N. & Pearson R.G. 2007. Applications of ecological niche modeling for species delimitation: a review and empirical evaluation using day geckos (Phelsuma) from Madagascar. Syst. Biol. 56 (6): 907–923. DOI: 10.1080/10635150701775111

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Richardson J.L., Urban M.C., Bolnick D.I. & Skelly D.K. 2014. Microgeographic adaptation and the spatial scale of evolution. Trends Ecol. Evol. 29 (3): 165–176. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2014.01.002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Rissler L.J. & Apodaca J.J. 2007. Adding more ecology into species delimitation: ecological niche models and phylogeography help define cryptic species in the black salamander (Aneides flavipunctatus). Syst. Biol. 56 (6): 924–942. DOI: 10.1080/10635150701703063

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Sachs J.L., Mueller U.G., Wilcox T.P. & Bull J.J. 2004. The evolution of cooperation. Q. Rev. Biol. 79 (2): 135–160. DOI: 10.1086/386571

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Sagan L. 1967. On the origin of mitosing cells. J. Theor. Biol. 14 (3): 255–274. DOI: 10.1016/0022-5193(67)90079-3

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Seehausen O., Butlin R.K., Keller I., Wagner C.E., Boughman J.W., Hohenlohe P.A., Peichel C.L., Saetre G.P., Bank C., Brännström A., Brelsford A., Clarkson C.S., Eroukhmanoff F., Feder J.L., Fischer M.C., Foote A.D., Franchini P., Jiggins C.D., Jones F.C., Lindholm A.K., Lucek K., Maan M.E., Marques D.A., Martin S.H., Matthews B., Meier J.I., Möst M., Nachman M.W., Nonaka E., Rennison D.J., Schwarzer J., Watson E.T., Westram A.M. & Widmer A. 2014. Genomics and the origin of species. Nature Rev. Genet. 15 (3): 176–192. DOI: 10.1038/nrg3644

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Smith J.M. 1978. The Evolution of Sex. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 236 pp. ISBN: 9780521293020

  • Smith, J.M., 1998. Evolutionary Genetics (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford U. Pr. (UK), 354 pp. ISBN-10: 0198502311, ISBN-13: 978-0198502319

  • Sommer U. & Worm B. (eds) 2002. Competition and Coexistence. Ecological Studies, Vol. 161, Analysis and Synthesis. Springer Science & Business Media (Germany), 224 pp. ISBN: 978-3-642-62800-9 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-56166-5

  • Templeton A.R. 1981. Mechanisms of speciation – a population genetics approach. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 12: 23–48. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.es.12.110181.000323

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Tilman D. 2004. Niche tradeoffs, neutrality, and community structure: a stochastic theory of resource competition, invasion, and community assembly. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101 (30): 10854–10861. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0403458101

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Via S., Gomulkiewicz R., De Jong G., Scheiner S.M., Schlichting C.D. & Van Tienderen P.H. 1995. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity: consensus and controversy. Trends Ecol. Evol. 10 (5): 212–217. DOI: 10.1016/S0169-5347(00)89061-8

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Wade M.J. 2007. The co-evolutionary genetics of ecological communities. Nature Rev. Genet. 8: 185–195. DOI: 10.1038/nrg2031

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wagner A. 2012. The role of robustness in phenotypic adaptation and innovation. Proc. Roy. Soc. London B: Biol. Sci. 279 (1732): 1249–1258. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2011.2293

  • Wauters L., Tosi G. & Gurnell J. 2005. A review of the competitive effects of Grey Squirrell on behaviour, activity and habitat use of Red Squirrell in mixed deciduous woodland in Italy. Hystrix It. J. Mamm. 16 (1): 27–40. DOI: doi:10.4404/hystrix-16.1-4340

  • Wilson E.O. & Peter F.M. (eds) 1988. Biodiversity. National Academy of Sciences (U.S.), Smithsonian Institution (USA), 521 pp. ISBN: 0-309-03783-2

  • Wright J.S. 2002. Plant diversity in tropical forests: a review of mechanisms of species coexistence. Oecologia 130 (1): 1–14. DOI: 10.1007/s004420100809

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
Purchase article
Get instant unlimited access to the article.
Log in
Already have access? Please log in.


or
Log in with your institution

Journal + Issues

Search