2 Norwegian College of Fishery Science, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, Postbox 6050 Langnes, Tromsø, NO-9037, Norway
Hans-Otto Baral studied Biology at the University of Tübingen, Germany. Since the 1970s he has been working on the taxonomy, pleomorphy, phylogeny, and ecology of ascomycetes, particularly inoperculate discomycetes. Over 25 years ago, he started to work on a world-wide monograph of Orbiliomycetes which is presently being finished. During the past 30 years, he has published studies in various genera of Helotiales, including the cause of the ash dieback disease. His main concern is the study of living fungal cells, called “vital taxonomy”, which he found to supply a much more reliable basis for morphology-based fungal taxonomy, and a better understanding of the function of fungal microstructures.
Teppo Rämä is mycologist and postdoctoral fellow in Marine Biodiscovery. His work with fungi started in Finland in the 2000s, and in 2014 he received his PhD at the University of Tromsø – The Arctic University of Norway. He is interested in the diversity and biology of fungi, and especially the species that are found in the marine environment. His current research focuses on marine fungal biodiscovery and biosystematics.
Laetinaevia marina is a frequent ascomycetous fungus that is widely distributed on the seashores of Scandinavia and Great Britain. It grows on fronds of Fucales (Phaeophyceae) that are washed ashore and lie decaying at the high tide mark or further up on the beach. It is one of the few described marine discomycetes. In the current generic concept it is regarded as a member of Naevioideae (Dermateaceae or Mollisiaceae), while it has previously been placed in the genus Orbilia (Orbiliaceae). We studied fresh collections, in live and dead state, to provide a morphological update on the species and to elucidate its systematic placement using molecular systematics. The hemiamyloid reaction of the apical ring, the absence of croziers, and the faintly refractive vacuolar bodies of the terminal cells of living paraphyses are reported here for the first time. A thin gel sheath surrounding the ascospores was confirmed to exist. Based on morphological characters, ribosomal RNA and protein coding gene sequences published for this species here for the first time, we show that L. marina is distinct from the genera and families it was previously placed in, and propose the new combination Calycina marina, despite its erumpent, sessile, pulvinate and rather immarginate apothecia. Furthermore, we present additional observations on the ecology, phenology, and distribution of the species.
Baral, H.O. 1987. Lugol’s solution/IKI versus Melzer’s reagent: hemiamyloidity, a universal feature of the ascus wall. Mycotaxon29: 399–450.
Baral, H.O. 2009. Iodine reaction in Ascomycetes: why is Lugol’s solution superior to Melzer’s reagent? http://www.invivoveritas.de. Accessed 20 October 2015.
Benson, D.A., K. Clark, I. Karsch-Mizrachi, D.J. Lipman, J. Ostell and E.W. Sayers. 2014. GenBank. Nucleic Acids Res.42: D32–D37.
Darriba, D., G.L. Taboada, R. Doallo and D. Posada. 2012. jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nat. Methods9: 772–772.
Eriksson, O. 1973. Orbilia marina, an over-looked Discomycete on members of Fucales. Svensk Bot. Tidskr.67: 208–210.
Gargas, A. and J.W. Taylor. 1992. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for amplifying and sequencing nuclear 18S rDNA from lichenized fungi. Mycologia84: 589–592.
Guindon, S. and O. Gascuel. 2003. A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst Biol.52: 696–704.
Hein, B. 1976. Revision der Gattung Laetinaevia Nannf. (Ascomycetes) und Neuordnung der Naevioideae. Willdenowia. Beiheft9: 3–136.
Jaklitsch, W., H.O. Baral, R. Lücking and T. Lumbsch. 2015. Part 1/2 Ascomycota. In: (W. Frey, ed.) Syllabus of plant families. J. Cramer, Borntraeger, Stuttgart.
Johnson, D., G.-H. Sung, N.L. Hywel-Jones, J.J. Luangsa-Ard, J.F. Bischoff, R.M. Kepler and J.W. Spatafora. 2009. Systematics and evolution of the genus Torrubiella (Hypocreales, Ascomycota). Mycol. Res.113: 279–289.
Jones, E.B.G., J. Sakayaroj, S. Suetrong, S. Somrithipol and K.-L. Pang. 2009. Classification of marine Ascomycota, anamorphic taxa and Basidiomycota. Fungal Divers.35: 1–187.
Katoh, K. and D.M. Standley. 2013. MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Mol. Biol. Evol.30: 772–780.
Kirk, P. and B. Spooner. 1984. An account of the fungi of Arran, Gigha and Kintyre. Kew Bull.38: 503–597.
Kohlmeyer, J. and E. Kohlmeyer. 1979. Marine Mycology: The Higher Fungi. Academic Press, New York, NY. pp. 690.
Matheny, P.B., Y.J. Liu, J.F. Ammirati and B.D. Hall. 2002. Using RPB1 sequences to improve phylogenetic inference among mushrooms (Inocybe, Agaricales). Am. J. Bot. 89: 688–698.
Murray, M.G. and W.F. Thompson. 1980. Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA. Nuc. Acids Res.8: 4321–4325.
Mysterud, I., K. Høiland, G. Koller and Ø. Stensrud. 2007. Molecular characterization and evaluation of plant litter-associated fungi from the spring “grazing corridor” of a sheep herd vulnerable to alveld disease. Mycopathologia164: 201–215.
Nannfeldt, J.A. 1932. Studien über die Morphologie und Systematik der nicht-lichenisierten inoperculaten Discomyceten. Nova acta Regiae societatis scientiarum Upsaliensis. Ser. 4.8 (2): 1–368.
Pang, K.-L., S.Y. Guo, S.A. Alias, J. Hafellner and E.B.G. Jones. 2014. A new species of marine Dactylospora and its phylogenetic affinities within the Eurotiomycetes, Ascomycota. Bot. Mar. 57: 315–321.
Rehner, S.A. and G.J. Samuels. 1994. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Gliocladium analysed from nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Mycol. Res.98: 625–634.
Ronquist, F., M. Teslenko, P. van der Mark, D.L. Ayres, A. Darling, S. Höhna, B. Larget, L. Liu, M.A. Suchard and J.P. Huelsenbeck. 2012. MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference and Model Choice Across a Large Model Space. Syst. Biol.61: 539–542.
Schoch, C.L., K.A. Seifert, S. Huhndorf, V. Robert, J.L. Spouge, C.A. Levesque, W. Chen and Fungal Barcode Consortium. 2012. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 109: 6241–6246.
Smith, A.L. 1909. New or rare microfungi. Trans. Br. Mycol Soc.3: 111–124, pl. 6.
Stiller, J.W. and B.D. Hall. 1997. The origin of red algae: Implications for plastid evolution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 94: 4520–4525.
Suetrong, S. and E.B.G. Jones. 2006. Marine discomycetes: A review. Indian J. Mar. Sci.35: 291–296.
Tchesunov, A., N. Kaljakina and E. Bubnova. 2008. A Catalogue of Biota of the White Sea Biological Station of the Moscow State University (Katalog bioty Belomorskoy biologicheskoy stantsii MGU). KMK Scientific Press Ltd, Moscow. pp. 384.
Triebel, D. and H.O. Baral. 1996. Notes on the ascus types in Crocicreas (Leotiales, Ascomycetes) with a characterization of selected taxa. Sendtnera3: 199–218.
Vilgalys, R. and M. Hester. 1990. Rapid genetic identification and mapping of enzymatically amplified ribosomal DNA from several Cryptococcus species. J. Bacteriol.172: 4238–4246.
White, T.J., T. Bruns, S. Lee and J. Taylor. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: (M.A. Innis, D.H. Gelfand, J.J. Sninsky and T. J. White, eds) PCR Protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. pp. 315–322.
Botanica Marina publishes high-quality contributions from all of the disciplines of marine botany at all levels of biological organisation from subcellular to ecosystem: chemistry and applications, genomics, physiology and ecology, phylogeny and biogeography. Research involving global or interdisciplinary interest is especially welcome as well as applied science papers dealing with emerging conceptual issues or developing technologies.