New records and observations of macroalgae and associated pathogens from the Falkland Islands, Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego

Alexandra Mystikou, Aldo O. Asensi 4 , Olivier DeClerck 5 , Dieter G. Müller 6 , Akira F. Peters 7 , Konstantinos Tsiamis 8 , Kyle I. Fletcher, Renato Westermeier 9 , Paul Brickle 3 , Pieter van West 2 ,  and Frithjof C. Küpper
  • 1 University of Aberdeen
  • 2 Aberdeen Oomycete Laboratory, University of Aberdeen
  • 3 South Atlantic Environmental Research Institute
  • 4 15 rue Lamblardie, F-75012 Paris, France
  • 5 Ghent University
  • 6 Department of Biology, University of Konstanz
  • 7 Bezhin Rosko, 40 rue des pêcheurs, 29250 Santec, Brittany, France
  • 8 Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR), Institute of Oceanography, Anavyssos 19013, Attica, Greece
  • 9 Instituto de Acuicultura, Universidad Austral de Chile
  • 10 Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory
Alexandra Mystikou
  • University of Aberdeen
  • Aberdeen Oomycete Laboratory, University of Aberdeen
  • South Atlantic Environmental Research Institute
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  • Alexandra Mystikou earned her PhD from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland in September 2015. Her PhD research focused on the taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology and biogeography of macroalgae. She is currently an honorary research fellow at the University of Aberdeen. Dr. Mystikou has worked on the seaweed diversity of the southwestern Antarctic Peninsula, the Falkland Islands and surrounding regions, but she has also contributed to work on the marine flora of the Canadian Arctic and on alien seaweed species in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.
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, Aldo O. Asensi
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  • Aldo O. Asensi obtained his MSc in Biology at Buenos Aires University and his PhD (Doctor 3eme cycle) at Paris University-Pierre et Marie Curie. In his research, he has explored marine algal taxonomy, biodiversity, biogeography, development and reproduction in vitro, cytology and cellular morphology. He is author of 55 articles and of two books. He has travelled extensively – his explorations have taken him to Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia and Antarctica and to the Kerguelen Islands. He worked as a visiting/temporary lecturer at the University of Buenos Aires, the University of Tadeo Lozano (Colombia) and at the University of Costa Rica.
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, Olivier DeClerck
  • Ghent University
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  • Olivier DeClerck is an Associate Professor at Ghent University (Belgium), specializing in diversity, distribution and genetics of marine seaweeds. In his research he addresses questions ranging purely descriptive taxonomic studies, over invasive species biology to ecological studies forecasting the distribution of species in relation to environmental changes. Much of his work is centered on genetic data which is used for species identification, reconstruction of evolutionary relationships and understanding range dynamics over long periods of time.
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, Dieter G. Müller, Akira F. Peters
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  • Akira F. Peters is a gentleman scientist. Since the beginning of his scientific career in 1980 he has worked on life histories, taxonomy, phylogenetics, ecology, pathology, genetics, development, cultivation and utilization of brown algae. He has a PhD from Konstanz University, Germany, is director of the enterprise Bezhin Rosko (www.bezhinrosko.com) and lives near Roscoff in Brittany, NW France. His main techniques are isolation, purification and laboratory cultivation of seaweed microstages.
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, Konstantinos Tsiamis
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  • Konstantinos Tsiamis is a marine biologist, focusing on seaweeds and seagrasses: biodiversity, biology, ecology and taxonomy, with emphasis on alien species and pollution impacts in the Mediterranean Sea. He has participated in more than 25 research projects on the marine environment, has been involved in 35 scientific peer-reviewed publications, has participated in numerous symposia and workshops, and obtained several scholarships. He is an expert scuba diver with long experience in sampling seaweeds and seagrasses. He has recently been appointed as a scientific/technical support officer in the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC).
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, Kyle I. Fletcher
  • University of Aberdeen
  • Aberdeen Oomycete Laboratory, University of Aberdeen
  • Further information
  • Kyle I. Fletcher is currently a postdoctoral researcher at the Genome Center, University of California Davis, where he is involved in several comparative genome projects focusing on oomycete pathogens of agricultural crops. Prior to this Kyle completed his PhD at the University of Aberdeen, graduating in 2015. His studies focused on organisms associated with marine algae, with a particular focus on Olpidiopsis sp. Eurychasma sp. and Anisolpidium sp. Prior to this he studied his BSc at Queen’s University Belfast, graduating in 2010.
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, Renato Westermeier
  • Instituto de Acuicultura, Universidad Austral de Chile
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  • Renato Westermeier works on taxonomy, ecology, cultivation and utilization of algae, mainly in the South of Chile. He has a Dr. rer. nat from Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany. He studies energy content of seaweed, population dynamics of algae in order to develop the management of red and brown algae in Chile. He has developed seaweed farming methods, e.g. for Sarcothalia, Gigartina, Gracilaria, and recently Porphyra. He has successfully developed improved varieties of Macrocystis, which they are successfully grown in Atacama, Northern Chile. He currently holds the position of Vice Chancellor of the Universidad Austral de Chile Sede Puerto Montt.
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, Paul Brickle
  • South Atlantic Environmental Research Institute
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  • Paul Brickle is Director of the South Atlantic Environmental Research Institute. Paul’s interests include the ecology and oceanography of the southern Patagonian Shelf, particularly the reproductive biology, age and growth, population dynamics and the population structure of marine species inhabiting the waters of this region. His other interests include shallow marine ecology, community ecology and biogeography of small isolated islands particularly those in the South Atlantic. Paul is an active diving member of the Falkland Islands based Shallow Marine Surveys Group. He is also a Reader at the School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen.
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, Pieter van West
  • Aberdeen Oomycete Laboratory, University of Aberdeen
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  • Pieter van West is Director of the International Centre for Aquaculture Research and Development at the University of Aberdeen. In 2012 he was given a Chair in Mycology at the University of Aberdeen. He is currently President Elect of the British Mycological Society. His laboratory investigates most aspects of the biology of oomycetes, often referred to as “water moulds”. Algal pathogens under investigation in his laboratory include Olpidiopsis spp., Eurychasma dicksonii, Anisolpidium spp. and Maullinia.
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and Frithjof C. Küpper
  • Corresponding author
  • University of Aberdeen
  • Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory
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  • Frithjof C. Küpper has held the Chair in Marine Biodiversity at the University of Aberdeen (Oceanlab) since 2011. Over the past 25 years, he has studied the biodiversity and biochemistry of marine plants/algae – especially abiotic and biotic stress. He conducted graduate studies at Roscoff and Konstanz for a joint French-German PhD. His research resulted in the finding of iodide serving as an inorganic antioxidant in kelp, the first described from a living system, impacting atmospheric and marine chemistry. A certified scientific diver, Frithjof has worked extensively in the South Atlantic (Ascension and Falkland Islands), but also in the Antarctic Peninsula and the Canadian Arctic for algal diversity-related projects.
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Abstract

Subantarctic and Antarctic regions remain little explored with regards to their seaweed diversity. This study is based upon collections in the early 1970s and 2007–2013. It is supported by sequencing COI (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I) and reports new records for four species of brown algae (Hincksia granulosa, Hincksia sandriana, Myriotrichia clavaeformis, Syringoderma australe), four red algae (Erythrotrichia carnea, Paraglossum salicifolium, Phycodrys antarctica, Plumariopsis eatonii), one green alga (Chaetomorpha aerea) and of the oomycete Anisolpidium ectocarpii. A further four brown algae are reported at genus level and discussed (Cladostephus sp., Colpomenia sp., Dictyota sp., Punctaria sp.). Observations of the biology of three brown algal taxa (Cladothele decaisnei, Geminocarpus geminatus, Halopteris obovata) from the region are also reported here.

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