Interactions between kelp spores and encrusting and articulated corallines: recruitment challenges for Lessonia spicata

Gloria M. Parada 1 , Enrique A. Martínez 2 , 3 , Moisés A. Aguilera 3 , Mauricio H. Oróstica 4  and Bernardo R. Broitman 2
  • 1 Visión Oceánica Ltda, Sucre 1900 of, 1002 Santiago, Chile
  • 2 Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Ossandón 877, Coquimbo, Chile
  • 3 Departamento de Biología Marina, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo, Chile
  • 4 School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge, LL59 5AB, UK
Gloria M. Parada
  • Visión Oceánica Ltda, Sucre 1900 of, 1002 Santiago, Chile
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  • Gloria M. Parada obtained her degree in marine biology from the Universidad de Valparaíso (Chile) and her Master of Science in management of marine resources from CICIMAR-IPN (La Paz, B.C.S. Mexico). Her research focused on several ecological aspects of the Laminariales and she worked for several years designing investment projects for rural communities and small-scale fishermen of the Chilean coasts. At present, she works for Visión Oceánica Ltd. and CARMAC Foundation, Chile.
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, Enrique A. Martínez
  • Corresponding author
  • Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Ossandón 877, Coquimbo, Chile
  • Departamento de Biología Marina, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo, Chile
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  • Enrique A. Martínez, here holding a specimen of Fucus vesiculosus from the Atlantic Ocean of northern France, obtained his PhD from the Pontificia Universidad Católica where he worked on the ecology and evolution of microscopic stages of Chilean kelps. He lives in southern France where he still does some research, searching how to live in a more sustainable society.
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, Moisés A. Aguilera
  • Departamento de Biología Marina, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo, Chile
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  • Moisés A. Aguilera is a full professor and researcher at the Department of Marine Biology of the Universidad Católica del Norte at Coquimbo, Chile. He obtained his PhD in ecology in 2010 at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. His research interest includes impacts of coastal urbanization on community structure and functioning and processes related to urban ecology in general. In addition, the main focus of his research has centered on an experimental-based perspective, especially related to alga-herbivore interaction strengths.
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, Mauricio H. Oróstica
  • School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge, LL59 5AB, UK
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  • Mauricio H. Oróstica obtained his degree in marine biology from Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción-Chile and his MSc degree in marine science from Universidad Católica del Norte-Chile. His interest is focused on intertidal ecology, particularly on the processes, as well as mechanisms, that affect the intertidal landscape at small and large spatial scales. Since 2015, he is a PhD student at the School of Ocean Sciences in Bangor University, UK, funded by the National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICYT, Chilean government).
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and Bernardo R. Broitman
  • Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Ossandón 877, Coquimbo, Chile
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  • Bernardo R. Broitman is a lead researcher at the Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Aridas (CEAZA) and a PhD in ecology, evolution and marine biology from the University of California, Santa Barbara. His primary scientific interest is understanding the role of biophysical forcing on ecological interactions, using intertidal communities in upwelling regions. His transdisciplinary interest has prompted him to investigate the socio-ecological system around shellfish aquaculture in order to understand the principles underpinning their sustainability.
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Abstract

Intertidal kelps like Lessonia spicata (Laminariales) dominate low intertidal habitats, where they coexist with morphologically diverse coralline seaweeds. We show that crustose and articulated coralline algae have contrasting effects on the settlement and recruitment of this kelp species. Crustose coralline algae significantly inhibited the settlement of kelp spores, while they readily settled on the genicula of articulated coralline algae. This pattern was observed both in laboratory experiments and in field experiments conducted in the low intertidal zone at three locations. Field surveys confirmed that L. spicata juveniles were significantly more likely to be found on articulated corallines than on crustose corallines. This pattern held in field surveys at 10 sites, where primary space occupancy of L. spicata showed a significant negative correlation with the cover of crustose coralline algae in 3 out of 4 years, across all sites. Our results provide an important ecological clue to the processes determining recruitment limitation for ecologically and economically important seaweeds, and support conservation and management actions.

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