The monoculture vegetable production systems practiced by Zimbabwean farmers has resulted in major disease outbreaks, causing major production constraints. There is need to determine the intensity of pesticides usage and methods of alternative disease management strategies. This study was carried out using 250 randomly selected vegetable farmers by administering questionnaires. The study objectives were to determine farmers’ perceptions on vegetable disease incidence and severity in relation to prevailing weather conditions, and determine common control methods practiced to manage fungal and bacterial disease outbreaks. The results indicated significant increases in fungal and bacterial disease incidence of 84.6% (within community cropping fields) and severity of 73.1% (within individual farmer fields) over the past 5-10 years (P £ 0.05). It also revealed disease incidence being highest [30.8%] during winter (May – July) and rainy months [23.1%] (November – February). Results further indicated 96.2% of the respondents relied on chemical methods, 53.8% used cultural control, and 11.5% used natural control methods. However, none of the farmers used bio-pesticide/biological control methods. In conclusion: farmers are aware of the disease shifts in response to different climate variability but seem unaware of the negative effects of extensive chemical use, nor existence of alternative bio-pesticide/biological disease management strategies.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
 ADAMS, I. The Health Benefits of Dark Green Leafy Vegetables. University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, 6–8, 2013.
 AGRIOS, G. N. Plant Pathology. Amsterdam; Boston: Elsevier Academic Press. 5th Edition, 2005.
 ALTIZER, S., A. DOBSON., P. HOSSEINI., P. HUDSON., M. PASCUAL., AND P. ROHANI. Seasonality and the Dynamics of Infectious Diseases: Seasonality and Infectious Diseases. Ecology Letters 9 (4): 467–84, 2006.
 BROWN, D., R. R. CHANAKIRA, K. CHATIZA., M. DHLIWAYO., D. DODMAN, AND M. MASIIWA. Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation in Zimbabwe, 2012.
 CHAKRABORTY, S. Potential Impact of Climate Change on Plant – Pathogen Interactions Presented as a Keynote Address at the 15 The Biennial Conference of the Australasian Plant Pathology Society. 443–48, 2005.
 CHIPURURA, B. Nutritional Content, Phenolic Compounds Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Selected Indigenous Vegetables of Zimbabwe. University of Zimbabwe, 2010.
 DAVIS, R. M., W. D. GUBLER, S. T. KOIKE, AND M. L. FLINT. Powdery Mildew on Vegetables. Pest Notes Publication (November): 1–3, 2008.
 DEUTER, P. Defining the Impacts of Climate Change on Horticulture in Australia. Garnaut Climate Change Review. Heritage, no. June: 1–19, 2008.
 DOUGLAS, S. M. Selected Bacterial Diseases of Vegetables. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. New Haven, CT, 1–7, 2003.
 ELAD, Y., AND I. PERTOT. Climate Change Impacts on Plant Pathogens and Plant Diseases Adapted and Modified from Climate Change Impact on Climate Change and Plant diseases (Chapter 11) in Combating Climate Change: An Agricultural Perspective. 7528, 2016.
 EVANS, N., A. BAIERL, M. A SEMENOV, P. GLADDERS, AND B. D.L FITT. Range and Severity of a Plant Disease Increased by Global Warming. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 5 (22): 525–31, 2008.
 GARRET, K. A, S.P DENDY, E.E. FRANK, M.N ROUSE, AND S.E TRAVERS. Climate Change Effects on Plant Disease: Genomes to Ecosystems. Annual Review of Phytopathology 44: 489–509, 2006.
 HANIF, R., Z. IQBAL., M. IQBAL, S. HANIF, AND M. RASHEED. Use of Vegetables as Nutritional Food: Role in Human Health. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 1 (1): 18–20, 2006.
 HORRIGAN, L., R. S. LAWRENCE., AND P. WALKER. How Sustainable Agriculture Can Address the Environmental and Human Health Harms of Industrial Agriculture. Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (5): 445, 2006.
 JIRI, O. AND P. L. MAFONGOYA. Smallholder Farmer Perceptions on Climate Change and Variability: A Predisposition for Their Subsequent Adaptation Strategies. Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change 6 (5), 2015.
 KADER, A. A., P. PERKINS-VEAZIE, AND G. E LESTER. Principles of Horticultural Physiology: Nutritional Quality and Its Importance to Human Health. Wallingford, Oxfordshire. UK. CAB International. 2nd Edition, 2003.
 LARKIN, R. P. Impacts of Biocontrol Products on Rhizoctonia Disease of Potato and Soil Microbial Communities, and Their Persistence in Soil. Crop Protection 90 (December): 96–105, 2016.
 LUCK, J., M. SPACKMAN, A. FREEMAN, P. TRĘBICKI, W. GRIFFITHS, K. FINLAY, AND S. CHAKRABORTY. Climate Change and Diseases of Food Crops: Diseases of Food Crops. Plant Pathology 60 (1): 113–21, 2011.
 MHAKA, E. Managing Natural Resources and Wildlife in Contemporary Society: Tapping into the Traditional Karanga Culture. Scholars Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences 3 (1A): 41–48, 2015.
 MINA, U., S. D. SINGH., B. SINGH, AND M. KHAUND. Response of Wheat and Chickpea Cultivars to Reduced Levels of Solar Irradiance. Journal of Agrometeorology 17 (2): 165, 2015.
 MINA, U. AND D. DUBEY. Effect of Environmental Variables on Development of Fusarium Wilt in Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum) Cultivars. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 80 (3): 231, 2010.
 MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, MECHANISM AND IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT. Department of Research and Specialist Services Report for the Month of November/December, 2014.
 MTISI, F. AND C. PROWSE. Baseline Report on Climate Change and Development in Zimbabwe, 2012.
 NGOWI, A.V.F., T.J. MBISE, A.S.M. IJANI, L. LONDON, AND O.C. AJAYI. Smallholder Vegetable Farmers in Northern Tanzania: Pesticides Use Practices, Perceptions, Cost and Health Effects. Crop Protection 26 (11), 2007.
 NTOW, W. J., H. J GIJZEN. P. KELDERMAN, AND P. DRECHSEL. Farmer Perceptions and Pesticide Use Practices in Vegetable Production in Ghana. Pest Management Science 62 (2006): 356–65, 2006.
 NYAMAPFENE, K. A Geographical Overview of the Soils of Zimbabwe and Their Agricultural Potential, 1992.
 NYAMUPINGIDZA, T. N., AND V. MACHAKAIRE. Virus Diseases of Important Vegetables in Zimbabwe. In Plant Virology in Sub-Saharan Africa: Proceedings of a Conference Organized by IITA: 4-8 June 2001, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria, 397. IITA, 2003.
 OGLE, H. Disease management: chemicals, 2016.
 PAHLA, I., T. TUMBARE, J. CHITAMBA, AND A. KAPENZI. 2014. Evaluation of Allium Sativum and Allium Cepa Intercrops on the Control of Brevicoryne Brassicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Brassica napus, 2014.
 POTTS, S., K BIESMEIJER, R BOMMARCO, T BREEZE, L CARVALHEIRO, FRANZÉN, J.P GONZÁLEZ-VARO. Status and Trends of European Pollinators: Key Findings of the STEP Project, 2015.
 SALAU, I.A AND SHEHU, K. An Overview of the Fungal Diseases of Vegetables in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science. 4 (1): 1–5, 2015.
 SARKAR, S., AND R N PADARIA. Farmers’ Awareness and Risk Perception about Climate Change in Coastal Ecosystem of West Bengal. Indian Research Journal of Extension Education 10 (2): 32–38, 2010.
 SCHLENKER, W.,. AND LOBELL, D.B. 2010. Robust Negative Impacts of Climate Change on African Agriculture. Environmental Research Letters, 2010.
 SIZIBA, S., G. MUDIMU., AND M. MEKURIA. A Farm Level Evaluation of the Impact of IPM on Pesticide Use: A Comparative Analysis of IPM and Non-IPM Trained Farmers in Zimbabwe’s Smallholder Sector, 2003.
 SMITH-HALL, C., H. O. LARSEN, AND M. POULIOT. People, Plants and Health: A Conceptual Framework for Assessing Changes in Medicinal Plant Consumption. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 8 (1): 1, 2012.
 SPSS. PASW Statistics for Windows, Version 18.0. xSPSS Inc Oxford, 2009.
 TIBUGARI, H., P. JOWAH., R. MANDUMBU, AND C. KARAVINA. Tackling Diamondback Moth Plutella Xylostella (L.) Resistance: A Review on the Current Research on Vegetable Integrated Pest Management in Zimbabwe. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 45 (20): 2445–53, 2012.
 YÁÑEZ-LÓPEZ, R. The Effect of Climate Change on Plant Diseases. African Journal of Biotechnology 11 (10), 2012.
CASES is focused on highly inter and trans disciplinary research and addresses case studies, methodologies, statements and experiences that tell lessons learnt from how complex land systems evolve, react, should be developed or can be researched. The journal welcomes full research papers, discussions, reviews and short notes that advance land system science, both success and non-success stories.