This study describes the factors of variation of the enzymes related to the PON1-192 phenotype assessment, i.e., basal paraoxonase, salt-stimulated paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, and compares the PON1-192 phenotype to the PON1-192 genotype assessments in supposedly healthy subjects issued from the Stanislas cohort study. The studied population included 918 subjects, i.e., 221 families including 441 adults and 477 children aged 4 to 58 years. Potential determinants such as age, gender, body mass index, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and oral contraceptive intake have been studied. The PON ratio (salt-stimulated paraoxonase/arylesterase) was trimodally distributed and the cut-off values used to differentiate the two homozygous (AA and BB phenotypes) from the heterozygous (AB phenotype) subjects were 3.0 and 7.0 in this study. In males, basal paraoxonase and salt-stimulated paraoxonase activities were not affected by alcohol consumption and current smoking, but basal paraoxonase activity was decreased by 15% by current smoking and was increased by 15% by oral contraceptive intake in females as was the salt-stimulated paraoxonase activity. The level of discordance between phenotype and genotype assessments was 7.2% (66/918). Most of the discrepancies were observed between the BB and AB phenotypes (4.25%).
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