Background: The aim of this study was to examine prothrombogenic factors and antioxidative defense in obese children and adolescents with pre-metabolic and metabolic syndrome, and to analyze insulin secretion and resistance, early glycoregulation disorders and lipid status.
Methods: Insulin sensitivity was determined using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), while insulin secretion was determined using the homeostasis model assessment β (HOMA-β). Prothrombogenic factors analyzed were plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and fibrinogen. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured as markers of antioxidative defense.
Results: Patients with metabolic syndrome were characterized with increased body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and HOMA-IR and HOMA-β levels, and all had increased blood pressure and triglyceride levels, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, increased PAI-1 levels and reduced antioxidative defense levels. Patients with pre-metabolic syndrome had higher levels of basal and mean insulinemia during an oral glucose tolerance test, higher levels of HOMA-β and lower levels of antioxidative defense compared to patients with metabolic syndrome.
Conclusions: Negative correlations between antioxidative defense parameters and BMI, abdominal obesity, insulin secretion, systolic blood pressure and atherogenic lipid factors, as well as correlations between PAI-1 and insulin resistance and basal glycemia in the metabolic syndrome group contribute to accelerated atherosclerosis. Positive correlations between PAI-1 and waist circumference and BMI, and negative correlations between BMI and antioxidative defense in the pre-metabolic syndrome patients show that this early stage preceding the metabolic syndrome is also characterized by atherosclerotic complication risks and evident hyperinsulinism and insulin resistance.