How to be polite with emojis: a pragmatic analysis of face work strategies in an online learning environment

Michael Beißwenger 1  and Dr. Steffen Pappert 2
  • 1 Universität Duisburg-Essen, Fakultät für Geisteswissenschaften, Institut für Germanistik, Essen, Germany
  • 2 Universität Duisburg-Essen, Fakultät für Geisteswissenschaften, Essen, Germany
Michael Beißwenger
  • Corresponding author
  • Universität Duisburg-Essen, Fakultät für Geisteswissenschaften, Institut für Germanistik, Essen, Germany
  • Email
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
and Dr. Steffen Pappert

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Bedijs, Kristina, Gudrun Held & Christiane Maaß (eds.). 2014. Face Work and Social Media. Münster: Lit-Verlag:.

  • Beißwenger, Michael. 2015. Sprache und Medien: Digitale Kommunikation. In Studikurs Sprach- und Textverständnis. Hypermediales E-Learning-Angebot des Ministeriums für Innovation, Wissenschaft und Forschung (MIWF) des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen. https://www.studifinder.de/?ac=studyclass-overview / extended version: http://www.michael-beisswenger.de/pub/beisswenger_digikomm_preview.pdf (accessed 10 January 2019).

  • Beißwenger, Michael, Maria Ermakova, Alexander Geyken, Lothar Lemnitzer & Angelika Storrer. 2012. A TEI Schema for the Representation of Computer-mediated Communication. Journal of the Text Encoding Initiative 3. DOI 10.4000/jtei.476 (accessed 10 January 2019).

  • Beißwenger, Michael, Marcel Fladrich, Wolfgang Imo & Evelyn Ziegler. 2018. News from the MoCoDa2 corpus: A design and web-based editing environment for collecting and refining data from private CMC interactions. In Reinhild Vandekerckhove, Darja Fišer & Lisa Hilte (eds.), Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) and Social Media Corpora (CMC-corpora 2018), 17–18 September 2018, University of Antwerp. Antwerp, 10–14. https://www.uantwerpen.be/images/uantwerpen/container49896/files/proceedings_CMCcorpora2018.pdf (accessed 25 January 2019).

  • Beißwenger, Michael & Lena Meyer. 2018. Ortho & Graf: ein Wiki-basiertes Planspiel zur Förderung von Rechtschreibkompetenzen in der Sekundarstufe II. In Steffen Gailberger & Frauke Wietzke (eds.), Deutschunterricht in einer digitalen Gesellschaft. Unterrichtsanregungen für die Sekundarstufen, 296–330. Weinheim: Beltz Juventa.

  • Beißwenger, Michael & Lena Meyer. 2019, in press. Gamification als Schlüssel zu „trockenen“ Themen? Beobachtungen und Analysen zu einem webbasierten Planspiel zur Förderung orthographischer Kompetenz. In Karin Beckers & Marvin Wassermann (eds.), Wissenskommunikation im Web. Sprachwissenschaftliche und didaktische Perspektiven. (Transferwissenschaften). Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang.

  • Beißwenger, Michael & Steffen Pappert. 2018. Internetbasierte Kommunikation. In Frank Liedtke & Astrid Tuchen (eds.), Handbuch Pragmatik, 448–459. Stuttgart: Metzler.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, Penelope & Stephen C. Levinson. 1987. Politeness. Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: University Press.

  • Cramer, Henriette, Paloma de Juan & Joel Tetreault. 2016. Sender-Intended Functions of Emojis in US Messaging. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, 504–509. New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery, doi>10.1145/2935334.2935370 (accessed 24 April 2019).

  • Danesi, Marcel. 2017. The Semiotics of Emoji. The Rise of Visual Language in the Age of the Internet. London & New York: Bloomsbury.

  • Dresner, Eli & Susan C. Herring. 2010. Functions of the non-verbal in CMC: Emoticons and illocutionary force. Communication Theory, 20, 249–268.

  • Dürscheid, Christa & Karina Frick. 2016. Schreiben Digital. Wie das Internet unsere Alltagskommunikation verändert. Stuttgart: Kröner.

  • Dürscheid, Christa & Christina M. Siever. 2017. Jenseits des Alphabets – Kommunikation mit Emojis. Zeitschrift für Germanistische Linguistik 45(2), 256–285.

  • Fraser, Bruce. 2001. The form and function of politeness in conversation. In Klaus Brinker, Gerd Antos, Wolfgang Heinemann & Sven F. Sager (eds.), Text- und Gesprächslinguistik. Band 2, 1406–1425. Berlin & New York: de Gruyter.

  • Ge, Jing & Susan C. Herring. 2018. Communicative functions of emoji sequences on Sina Weibo. First Monday, 23(11) (5 November). https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/9413/7610 (accessed 10 January 2019).

  • Goffman, Erving. 1967. Interaction ritual. Essays on face-to-face behavior. Garden City/New York: Doubleday.

  • Goffman, Erving. 1974. Frame Analysis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Graham, Sage L. 2017. Politeness and impoliteness. In Christian R. Hoffmann & Wolfram Bublitz (eds.), Pragmatics of Social Media (Handbook of Pragmatics 11), 459–491. Berlin: de Gruyter.

  • Gumperz, John J. 1982. Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Gumperz, John J. 1992. Contextualization revisited. In: Peter Auer & Aldo di Luzio (eds.), The Contextualization of Language, 39–54. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

  • Herring, Susan C. & Ashley R. Dainas. 2017. “Nice picture comment!” Graphicons in Facebook comment threads. Proceedings of the Fiftieth Hawai’i International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-50). IEEE: Los Alamitos, CA. http://ella.slis.indiana.edu/~herring/hicss.graphicons.pdf (accessed 10 January 2019).

  • Hougaard, Tina Thode & Marianne Rathje. 2018. Emojis in the Digital Writings of Young Danes. In Arne Ziegler (ed.), Jugendsprachen/Youth Languages: Aktuelle Perspektiven internationaler Forschung/Current perspectives of international research, 773–806. Berlin & Boston: de Gruyter.

  • Imo, Wolfgang. 2015. Vom ikonischen über einen indexikalischen zu einem symbolischen Ausdruck? Eine konstruktionsgrammatische Analyse des Emoticons :-). In Jörg Bücker, Susanne Günthner & Wolfgang Imo (eds.), Konstruktionsgrammatik V, 133–162. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.

  • Kavanagh, Barry. 2016. Emoticons as a medium for channeling politeness within American and Japanese online blogging communities. Language & Communication, 48, 53–65.

  • Kelly, Ryan & Leon Watts. 2015. Characterising the inventive appropriation of emoji as relationally meaningful in mediated close personal relationships. Paper presented at Experiences of Technology Appropriation: Unanticipated Users, Usage, Circumstances, and Design, Oslo, Norway, 20 September. https://researchportal.bath.ac.uk/en/publications/characterising-the-inventive-appropriation-of-emoji-as-relational (accessed 10 January 2019).

  • Kerbrat-Orecchioni, Catherine. 2005. Politeness in France: How to Buy Bread Politely. In Leo Hickey & Miranda Stewart (eds.), Politeness in Europe, 29–44. Clevedon et al.: Multilingual Matters.

  • Li, Li & Yue Yang (2018): Pragmatic functions of emoji in internetbased communication – a corpus-based study. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education (2018) 3:16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40862-018-0057-z (accessed 10 January 2019).

  • Locher, Miriam A. 2004. Power and Politeness in Action. Disagreements in Oral Communication (Language, Power and Social Process 12). Berlin & New York: de Gruyter.

  • Locher, Miriam A. 2008. Relational work, politeness and identity construction. In Gerd Antos, Eija Ventola, Tilo Weber (eds.), Handbooks of Applied Linguistics 2, 509–540. Berlin & New York: de Gruyter.

  • Locher, Miriam A. 2010. Introduction: Politeness and impoliteness in computer mediated communication. Journal of Politeness Research 6(1), 1–5.

  • Locher, Miriam A., Brook Bolander & Nicole Höhn. 2015. Introducing relational work in Facebook and discussion boards. Pragmatics 25(1), 1–21.

  • Ljubešić, Nikola & Darja Fišer. 2016. A Global Analysis of Emoji Usage. In Proceedings of the 10th Web as Corpus Workshop. Berlin: Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL Anthology W16–2610), 82–89. http://aclweb.org/anthology/W16–2610 (accessed 25 January 2019).

  • Pappert, Steffen. 2017. Zu kommunikativen Funktionen von Emojis in der WhatsApp-Kommunikation. In Michael Beißwenger (ed.), Empirische Erforschung internetbasierter Kommunikation (Empirische Linguistik/Empirical Linguistics 9), 175–211. Berlin & New York: de Gruyter.

  • Selting, Margret. 1997. Interaktionale Stilistik. Methodologische Aspekte der Analyse von Sprechstilen. In Margret Selting & Barbara Sandig (eds.), Sprech- und Gesprächsstile, 9–43. Berlin & New York: de Gruyter.

  • Siebenhaar, Beat. 2018. Funktionen von Emojis und Altersabhängigkeit ihres Gebrauchs in der WhatsApp-Kommunikation. In Arne Ziegler (ed.), Jugendsprachen/Youth Languages: Aktuelle Perspektiven internationaler Forschung/Current perspectives of international research, 749–772. Berlin & Boston: de Gruyter.

  • Spina, Stefania. 2018. Role of Emoticons as Structural Markers in Twitter Interactions. Discourse Processes, doi: 10.1080/0163853X.2018.1510654 (accessed 15 April 2019).

  • Skovholt, Karianne, Anette Grønning & Anne Kankaanranta. 2014. The Communicative Functions of Emoticons in Workplace E-Mails: :-). Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 19, 780–797. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12063 (accessed 10 January 2019).

  • Thaler, Verena. 2012. Sprachliche Höflichkeit in computervermittelter Kommunikation. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.

  • Watts, Richard J. 2003. Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Watts, Richard J. 2010. Linguistic politeness theory and its aftermath: Recent research trails. In Miriam A. Locher & Sage L. Graham, (eds.), Interpersonal Pragmatics (Handbooks of Pragmatics 6), 43–70. Berlin & New York: de Gruyter.

  • Zifonun, Gisela, Ludger Hoffmann & Bruno Strecker. (1997). Grammatik der deutschen Sprache (Schriften des Instituts für deutsche Sprache). Berlin & New York: de Gruyter.

Purchase article
Get instant unlimited access to the article.
$42.00
Log in
Already have access? Please log in.


or
Log in with your institution

Journal + Issues

The European Journal of Applied Linguistics focuses on the particular concerns of applied linguistics in European contexts, both by addressing problems that are typically relevant for the linguistic situation in Europe, and by examining topics broached by or discussed in European applied linguistics in particular. The journal is part of the joint activities of the European AILA affiliates.

Search