Newly developed paleomagnetic map of the Easternmost Mediterranean joined with tectono-structural analysis unmask geodynamic history of this region

Lev Eppelbaum 1  and Youri Katz 2
  • 1 Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 2 Steinhardt Museum of Natural History & National Research Center, Faculty of Live Sciences, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel, Tel Aviv University

Abstract

Comprehensive magnetic-paleomagnetic analysis of physical-geological models developed for the Easternmost Mediterranean (northern part of the Sinai plate) accompanied by gravity and seismic data examination enabled the detection of a zone of inverse magnetization of submeridional strike with a total volume exceeding 120,000 km3. Such a large zone must correspond to the prolonged period of inverse polarity in the Earth’s magnetic field history. We suggest that this inversely magnetized thick block of the Earth’s crust corresponds to the known Kiama hyperzone. A paleomagnetic map constructed on the basis of abovementioned geophysical data analysis combined with detailed examination of structural, radiometric, petrological, facial, paleogeographical and some other data indicates that to the west of the Kiama zone is situated the Jalal zone, and to the east – Illawarra, Omolon and Gissar zones. Discovery of the Kiama paleomagnetic zone combined with tectonogeodynamical analysis and paleobiographical data examination indicates that the Earth’s oceanic crust blocks may have been shifted by transform faults from the eastern part of the Tethys Ocean to their modern position in the Easternmost Mediterranean. Analysis of potential geophysical fields and seismological maps integrated with tectonostructural examination show the isolation of the northern part of Sinai plate from other terranes. For the first time formation-paleogeographical maps of Triassic and Jurassic for the Easternmost Mediterranean have been compiled and their tectono-geodynamical explanation has been given. The obtained data create a basis for reconsidering tectonic zonation, paleogeodynamical reconstructions and searching for economic deposits in this region.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] Ben-AvrahamZ., The structure and tectonic setting of the Levant continental margin, Eastern Mediterranean, Tectonophysics, 1978, 46, 313–331.

  • [2] Khain V.E., Regional Geodynamics, Alpine Mediterranean Belt. Nedra, Moscow (in Russian), 1984.

  • [3] Stampfli G.M., Hochard C., Vérard C., Wilhem C., von Raumer J., The formation of Pangea. Tectonophysics, 2013, 593, 1–19, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2013.02.037.

  • [4] Ben-Avraham Z., Ginzburg A., Displaced terranes and crustal evolution of the Levant and the eastern Mediterranean. Tectonics, 1990, 9, 613–622.

  • [5] Robertson A.H.F., Clift P.D., Degnan, P.J., Jones G., Palaeogeographic and palaeotectonic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean Neotethys. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 1991. 87, 289–343.

  • [6] Ben-Avraham, Z., Ginzburg, A., Makris, J., Eppelbaum L., Crustal structure of the Levant basin, eastern Mediterranean. Tectonophysics, 2002, 346, 23–43, doi:10.1016/S0040- 1951(01)00226-8.

  • [7] Golonka J., Ford D., Pangean (Late Carboniferous – Middle Jurassic) paleoenvironment and lithofacies. Palaeogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, 2000, 161, 1–34.

  • [8] Eppelbaum L.V., Katz Y.I., Ben-Avraham Z., Israel – Petroleum Geology and Prospective Provinces. AAPG European Newsletter, 2012, 4, 4–9.

  • [9] Hall J.K., Krasheninnikov V.A., Hirsch F., Benjamini C., Flexer A. (Eds.), Geological framework of the Levant, Vol. II: The Levantine Basin and Israel, Jerusalem, 2005.

  • [10] Roberts G., Peace D., Hydrocarbon plays and prospectivity of the Levantine Basin, offshore Lebanon and Syria from modern seismic data. GeoArabia, 2007, 12, 3, 99–124.

  • [11] Gardosh M.A., Garfunkel Z., Druckman Y., Buchbinder B., Tethyan rifting in the Levant Region and its role in Early Mesozoic crustal evolution. Geological Society, London, 2010, 341, 9–36, doi:10.1144/SP341.2.

  • [12] Marlow L., Kornpihl K., Kendall C.G.St.C., 2-D basin modeling study of petroleum systems in the Levantine Basin, Eastern Mediterranean. GeoArabia, 2011, 16, 2, 17–42.

  • [13] Lazar M., Schattner Y.I., Reshef M., The great escape: An intra- Messinian gas system in the eastern Mediterranean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 2012, 39, L20309, 1–6, doi:10.1029/2012GL053484.

  • [14] Robertson A.H.F., Mesozoic–Tertiary tectonic evolution of the easternmost Mediterranean area: integration of marine and land evidence. In: (Robertson A.H.F., Emeis K.C., Richter C., Camerlenghi A., Eds.), Proceed. of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 1998, 160, 723–782.

  • [15] Ben-Avraham Z. Schattner U., Lazar M., Hall J.K., Ben-Gai Y., Neev D., Reshef M., Segmentation of the Levant continental margin, eastern Mediterranean. Tectonics, 2006, TC5002, 25, 1–17, doi:10.1029/2005TC001824.

  • [16] Jimenez-Munt I., Sabadini R., Gardi A., Active deformation in the Mediterranean from Gibraltar to Anatolia inferred from numerical modeling and geodetic and seismological data. J. Geophys. Res., 2006, 108, B1, 1–24, doi:10.1029/2001JB001544.

  • [17] Le Pichon X., Kreemer C., The Miocene-to-present kinematic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East and its implications for Dynamics. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 2010, 38, 323–351, doi:10.1146/annurev-earth-040809-152419.

  • [18] Eppelbaum L.V., Katz Y.I., Tectonic-Geophysical Mapping of Israel and eastern Mediterranean: Implication for Hydrocarbon Prospecting. Positioning, 2011, 2, 1, 36–54, doi:10.4236/pos.2011.21004.

  • [19] Eppelbaum L.V., Katz Y.I., Key features of seismo-neotectonic pattern of the eastern Mediterranean. Izvestiya Acad. Sci. Azerb. Rep., Ser.: Earth Sci., 2012, 3, 29–40.

  • [20] Sandwell D.T., Smith W.H.F., Global marine gravity from retracked Geosat and ERS-1 altimetry: Ridge Segmentation versus spreading rate. J. Geophys. Res., 2009, 114, 1–18, doi:10.1029/2008JB006008.

  • [21] Garfunkel Z., Constrains on the origin and history of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. Tectonophysics, 1998, 298, 1-3, 5–35, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2004.07.006.

  • [22] Garfunkel Z., Tectonic setting of Phanerozoic magmatism in Israel. Israel J. Earth Sci., 1989, 38, 2-4, 51–74.

  • [23] Segev A., 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar geochronology of Berriasian- Hauterivian and Cenomanian tectonomagnetic events in northern Israel: Implications for regional stratigraphy. Cretaceous Res., 2009, 30, 810–828, doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2009.01.003.

  • [24] Folkman Y., Yuval Z., Aeromagnetic Map of Israel, 1:250,000, Israel Institute for Petroleum Research and Geophysics, 1976, Holon, Israel

  • [25] Ginzburg A., Folkman Y., Rybakov M., Rotstein Y., Assael Y., Yuval Z., Israel: Bouguer Gravity Map, Scale 1:250,000, Survey of Israel, 1993, Jerusalem

  • [26] Rybakov M., Goldshmidt V., Rotstein Y., New regional of the gravity and magnetic maps of the Levant. Geophys. Res. Lett., 1997, 24, 33–36, doi:10.1029/96GL03617.

  • [27] Eppelbaum L.V., Pilchin A.N., Methodology of Curie discontinuity map development for regions with low thermal characteristics: an example from Israel. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2006, 243, 3-4, 536–551, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.01.003.

  • [28] Levitte D., Olshina A., Isotherm and Geothermal Gradient Maps of Israel, Geological Survey of Israel, 1985, Report GSI/60/85

  • [29] Shapira A., Shamir G., Seismicity parameters of seismogenic zones in and around Israel, 1994, IPRG Report Z 1/567179 (109)

  • [30] Vannucci G., Pondrelli S., Argnani A., Morelli A., Gasperini P., Boschi E., An atlas of Mediterranean seismicity. Ann. Geophys., 2004, Suppl. Vol. 47, 1, 247–306, doi:10.4401/ag-3276.

  • [31] Mechie J., Abu-Ayyash K., Ben-Avraham Z., El-Kelani R., Qabbani I., Weber M., Crustal structure of the southern Dead Sea basin derived from project DESIRE wide-angle seismic data. Int. Geophys. J., 2009, 178, 1, 457–478, doi:10.1111/j.1365- 246X.2009.04161.x.

  • [32] Shulman H., Reshef M., Ben-Avraham Z., The structure of the Golan Heights and its tectonic linkage to the Dead Sea Transform and the Palmyrides folding. Israel J. Earth Sci., 2004, 53, 225–237.

  • [33] Krasheninnikov V.A., Hall J.K., Hirsch F., Benjamini H., Flexer A., Geological Framework of the Levant, Volume 1: Cyprus and Syria, Jerusalem, 2005

  • [34] Pilchin A.N., EppelbaumL.V., Determination ofmagnetized bodies lower edges by using geothermal data. Int. Geophys. J., 1997, 128, 1, 167–174.

  • [35] Petrova A.A., Petrishchev, M.S., Fluid system of the Mediterranean. Bull. KRAUNTZ, Earth Sci., 2011, 17(1), 23–33.

  • [36] Noble identifies giant prospect offshore Israel, Offshore, 2010, 70, 5, June 04, 2010, http://www.offshore-mag.com/ index/article-display/6855731723/articles/offshore/field-development/ middleeast/2010/06/noble-identifies_giant.html

  • [37] Eastern Mediterranean prospects buoyed by USGS assessment. First Break, 2010, 28, 6, p. 23

  • [38] Tamar oil find fires interest in east Mediterranean data. First Break, 2009, 27, 6, p. 47

  • [39] Gardosh M.A., Druckman Y., Buchbinder B., Rybakov, M., The Levant Basin offshore Israel: Stratigraphy, structure, tectonic evolution and implications for hydrocarbon exploration, GII 429/328/08, Geological Inst. of Israel, 2008, 1–118.

  • [40] Martinez G.F., Cartwright J., Hall B., 3D seismic interpretation of slump complexes: examples from the continental margin of Israel. Basin Research, 2005, 17, 83–108, doi:10.1111/j.1365- 2117.2005.00255.x.

  • [41] Maillard A., Hübscher C., Benkhelilz J., Tahchiz E., Deformed Messinianmarkers in the Cyprus Arc: tectonic and/or Messinian Salinity Crisis indicators? Basin Research, 2011, 23, 146–170, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2117.2010.00464.x.

  • [42] Irving E., Paleomagnetism of some Carboniferous rocks from New South Wales and its relation to geological events. J. Geophys. Res., 1966, 71, 24, 6025–6051.

  • [43] Khramov A.N., Goncharov G.I., Komissarova R.A., Osipova E.P., Pogarskaya I.A., Rodionov V.P., Slautzitais I.P., Smirnov L.S., Forsh N.N., Paleomagnetism of the Paleozoic, Nedra, Leningrad (in Russian), 1974

  • [44] hramov A.N., Iosifidi A.G., Asymmetry of geomagnetic polarity: Equatorial dipole, Pangaea, and the Earth’s core. Izv. Phys. Solid Earth, 2012, 48, 1, 28–41.

  • [45] Molostovskii E.A., Pevzner M.A., Pechersky D.M. et al.Magnetostratigraphic scale of Phanerozoic and regime of geomagnetic field inversions. Geomagnetic Investigations, 1976, 17, Nauka, Moscow, 45–52.

  • [46] Reilinger R. et al., GPS constraints on continental deformation in the Africa-Arabia-Eurasia continental collision zone and implications for the dynamics of plate interactions. J. Geophys. Res., 2006, 111(B05411), 1–26, doi:10.1029/2005JB004051.

  • [47] Wdowinski S., Ben-Avraham Z., Arvidsson R., Ekström R., Seismotectonics of the Cyprian Arc. Geophys. J. Int., 2006, 164, 176– 181, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02737.x.

  • [48] Katz Y., EppelbaumL., Ben-AvrahamZ., Tectonic setting in Israel derived from examination of facial distribution and magneticthermal data analysis. Trans. of the 4th EUG Meet., Geoph. Research Abstracts, Vol. 9, EGU2007-A-04138, 2007, Vienna, Austria, 1–3.

  • [49] Berkovitch A., Binkin I., EppelbaumL., Scharff N., Guberman E., Integration of advanced multifocusing seismics with potential field analysis: Heletz oil field (central Israel) example. Journal of the Balkan Geophysical Society, 2005, 8, Suppl. 1, 593–596.

  • [50] Eppelbaum L.V., Combined interpretation of gravity and magnetic fields over the Rosh-Ha’Ayin structure, Israel. Trans. of the Conf. of the Geol. Soc. of America, North-Central section, Iowa, USA, 1996, 28, No.6, p. 38

  • [51] Eppelbaum L.V., Modelevsky M.M., Pilchin A.N., Thermal investigation in petroleum geology: the experience of implication in the Dead Sea Rift zone, Israel. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 1996, 19, No.4, 425–444.

  • [52] Eppelbaum L.V., Livshits Y.A., Flexer A., Ben-Avraham Z., Integrated geological-geophysical analysis of Ring Structures phenomenon in the Eastern Mediterranean. Trans. of the Conf. of Israel Geol. Soc., Ann. Meet., 1998. Mizpe-Ramon, Israel, p. 25

  • [53] Eppelbaum L., Ben-Avraham Z., Katz Y., Does mantle diapir produce Hebron magnetic anomaly? Trans. of the Conf. of the Israel Geol. Soc. Ann. Meet., 2005, Moshabim Country Logging (Negev), Israel, p. 26

  • [54] Eppelbaum L., Katz Y., Ben-Avraham Z., Mt. Carmel structure as a plate tectonics phenomenon, Trans. of the Conf. of the Israel Geol. Soc., Ann. Meet., 2006, Beit-Shean, Israel, p. 31

  • [55] EppelbaumL.V., Vaksman V.L., Kouznetsov S.V., Sazonova L.M., Smirnov S.A., Surkov A.V., Bezlepkin B., Katz Y., Korotaeva N.N., Belovitskaya G., Discovering of microdiamonds and mineralssatellites in Canyon Makhtesh Ramon (Negev desert, Israel), Doklady Earth Sci. (Springer), 2006, 407, 2, 202–204.

  • [56] Eppelbaum L.V., Ben-Avraham Z., Katz Y.I., Structure of the Sea of Galilee and Kinarot Valley derived from combined geologicalgeophysical analysis. First Break, 2007, 25, 1, 21–28.

  • [57] Ginzburg A., EppelbaumL., A combined 3-D interpretation of the Carmel gravity andmagnetic anomalies. Report prepared on behalf of Oilfields Ltd., 1993, Israel

  • [58] Ginzburg A., EppelbaumL., A 3-D reinterpretation of theMa’anit gravity anomaly. Report prepared on behalf of Oilfields Ltd., 1994, Israel

  • [59] Katz Y.I., Eppelbaum L.V., Preliminary results of basin mapping of the Lower Cretaceous traps in northern Israel. Trans. of the Conf. of the Israel Geol. Soc. Ann. Meet., 1999, Dead Sea, Israel, p. 40

  • [60] Steinberg J., Gvirtzman Z., Gvirtzman H., Ben-Gai Y., Late Tertiary faulting along the coastal plain of Israel. Tectonics, 2008, 27, 1–22, doi:10.1029/2007TC002151.

  • [61] Druckman Y., Weissbrod T., Goldberg M., Boehm S., Lithological and stratigraphic data on the Precambrian, Paleozoic, Triassic and Jurassic subsurface sequences penetrated in the Negev and Northern Sinai. Geol. Survey of Israel, Mapping, stratigraphy and oil division, 1983, Rep. S/6/83

  • [62] Andrews I.J., Permian, Triassic and Jurassic lithostratigraphy of the subsurface of Jordan. Subsurface Geology Bull., 1992, 4, 1– 60.

  • [63] Andrews I.J., Cretaceous and Paleogene lithostratigraphy of the subsurface of Jordan. Subsurface Geology Bull., 1992, 5, 1–60.

  • [64] Alsharhan A.S., Salah M.G., Geologic setting and hydrocarbon potential of north Sinai, Egypt. Bull. Canad. Petrol. Geology, 1996, 44, 4, 615–631.

  • [65] Bartov Y., Lewy Z., Steinitz G. and Zak I., Mesozoic and Tertiary stratigraphy, paleogeography and structural history of the Gebel Areif en Naqa area, eastern Sinai. Israel J. Earth Sci., 1980, 29, 114–139.

  • [66] Beydoun Z.R., Some open questions relating to the petroleum prospects of Lebanon. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 1981, 3, 3, 303–314.

  • [67] Beydoun Z.R., Futyan A.R., Jawzi A.H., Jordan revisited: Hydrocarbons habitat and potential. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 1994, 17, 2, 177–194.

  • [68] Druckman Y., The Triassic in southern Israel and Sinai. A sedimentological model of marginal epicontinental marine environments. Ph.D. Thesis, 1976, Hebrew Univ. Jerusalem

  • [69] Fleischer L., Varshavsky, A., A lithostratigraphic Data Base of oil and gas wells drilled in Israel. Ministry of National Infrastructures of Israel, 2002-2012, Rep. OG/9/02

  • [70] Lewy Z., Raab M., Mid-Cretaceous stratigraphy of the Middle East. Annales deMuseumd’Histoire Nat. de Nice, 1976, 4, XXXII, 1–19.

  • [71] Nader F.H., Swennen R., Petroleumprospects of Lebanon: some remarks from sedimentological and diagenetic studies of Jurassic carbonates. Marine and Petrol. Geology, 2004, 21, No.4, 427–441, doi:10.1016/S0264-8172(03)00095-3.

  • [72] Said R. (Ed.), The Geology of Egypt, 1990. A.A. Balkema/Rotterdam/Brookfield

  • [73] Segev A., Weissbrod T., Lang B., 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Aptian- Albian igneous rocks in Makhtesh Ramon (Negev, Israel) and its stratigraphic implications. Cretaceous Res., 2005, 26, 633– 656, doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2005.03.003.

  • [74] Shaaban F., Lutz R., Littke R., Bueker C., Odisho K., Source-rock evaluation and basin modelling in NE Egypt (NE Nile delta and Northern Sinai). Journal of PetroleumGeology, 2006, 29, 2, 103– 124.

  • [75] Walley C., Some outstanding issues in the geology of Lebanon and their importance in the tectonic evolution of the Levantine region. Tectonophysics, 1998, 298, 37–62, doi:10.1016/S0040- 1951(98)00177-2.

  • [76] Sneh A., Bartov Y., Rozensaft M., GeologicalMap of Israel, Scale 1:200,000. Geol. Survey of Israel, 1998, Min. of Nation. Infrastructure, Jerusalem

  • [77] Bender F., Geology of Jordan, Berlin, 1974, Gebruder Borntraeger

  • [78] Bartov Y., Geological Photomap of Israel and Adjacent Areas, 1:750,000, The Geological Survey of Israel, 1974, Jerusalem

  • [79] Segev A., Synchronous magmatic cycles during the fragmentation of Gondwana: radiometric ages from the Levant and other provinces. Tectonophysics, 2000, 325, 3–4, 257–277, doi:10.1016/S0040-1951(00)00122-0.

  • [80] Lang B., Steinitz G., K–Ar dating of Mesozoicmagmatic rocks in Israel: A review, Israel J. Earth Sci., 1989, 38, 89–103.

  • [81] Shaliv G., Stages in the tectonics and volcanic history of the Neogene basin in the Lower Galilee and the valleys. PhD Thesis, 1991, Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem

  • [82] Segev A., Phanerozoic magmatic activity associated with the vertical motions in Israel and the adjacent countries. In: Hall, J.K., Krasheninnikov V.A., Hirsch F., Benjamini C., Flexer A. (Eds.), Geological framework of the Levant, Volume II: The Levantine Basin and Israel, Jerusalem, 2005, 553–578

  • [83] Borradaile G.J., Lagroix F., Hamilton T.D., Trebilcock D.A., Ophiolite tectonics, rock magnetism and paleomagnetism, Cyprus. Surveys of Geophysics, 2010, 31, 285–359, doi:10.1007/s10712- 009-9090-2.

  • [84] Makridin V.P., Katz Y.I., Kuzmicheva E.I., Principles, methodology and significance of fauna of coral constructions for zoogeographic zonation of Jurassic and Cretaceous seas of Europe, Middle Asia and adjacent countries, In: (Smirnov G.A., Kluzhina M.L., Eds.), Fossil Organogenic Constructions and Methods of their Studying, Ural Branch of the USSR Acad. of Sci., 1968, 184–195.

  • [85] Katz Y.I., Eppelbaum L.V., Levantine phase of tectonic-thermal activity in the Eastern Mediterranean. Trans. of the Ann. Meet. of Geol. Soc. of Amer., Sect: Planetary Geology, 1999, 31, 7, A119.

  • [86] Orlova O., Hirsch F., Permian deposits in the subsurface of Israel: lithostratigraphy and foraminifers. In: (Wong Th.E., Ed.). Proceed. of the XVth Intern. Congress on Carboniferous and Permian Stratigraphy, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 10-16 Aug. 2003, Royal Neth. Acad. of Arts and Sci., 2007, 547–554.

  • [87] Robertson A.H.F., Woodcock N.H.Mamonia Complex, southwest Cyprus: Evolution, and emplacement of a Mesozoic continental margin. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull, 1979, 90, 651–665.

  • [88] Johnson P.R., Kattan F.H., Lithostratigraphic revision in the Arabian shield: The impacts of geochronology and tectonic analysis. The Arabian Jour. for Science and Engin., 2008, 33(1), 3–16.

  • [89] De Lamotte D.F., Raulin C., Mouchot N., Wrobel-Daveau J.-C., Blanpied C., Ringebach J.-C. The southernmost margin of the Tethys realm during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic: Initial geometry and timing of the inversion processes. Tectonics, 2011, TC3002 30, 1–22, doi:10.1029/2010TC002691.

  • [90] Meiler M., Reshef M., Shulman H., Seismic depth-domain stratigraphic classification of the Golan Heights, central Dead Sea Fault. Tectonophysics, 2011, 510, 354–369, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2011.08.007.

  • [91] Moix P., Beccaletto L., Masset O., Kozur H.W., Dumitrica P., Vachard D., Martini R., Stampfli G.M., Geology and correlation of the Mersin mélanges, southern Turkey. Turkish J. Earth Sci., 2011, 20, 57–98, doi:10.3906/yer-0910-8.

  • [92] Tawardos E., Geology of North Africa, 2011, CRC Press

  • [93] Hodgson N., The Miocene hydrocarbon play in Southern Lebanon. First Break, 2012, 30(12), 93–98.

  • [94] Eppelbaum L.V., Methodology of 3-D combined modeling of magnetic and gravity fields in the eastern Mediterranean. Proceed. of the 3rd EUG Meeting, 2006, Vienna, 8, 02057, p. 1–4.

  • [95] Khesin B.E., Alexeyev V.V., Eppelbaum L.V., Interpretation of Geophysical Fields in Complicated Environments. Kluwer Academic Publishers (Springer), Ser.: Modern Approaches in Geophysics, Boston - Dordrecht – London, 1996

  • [96] Eppelbaum L.V., Khesin B.E., Geophysical Studies in the Caucasus, Springer, 2012

  • [97] Levorsen A.I., Geology of Petroleum, Freeman & Co., San- Francisco/London, 1967

  • [98] Khain V.E., Lomize M.G., Geotectonics with Foundations of Geodynamics, Moscow State Univ., Moscow (in Russian), 1995

  • [99] Condie K.C. Plate Tectonics and Crustal Evolution, 4th Ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1997

  • [100] Nichols G., Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, 2nd Ed., Wiley, 2009

  • [101] Turcotte D.L., Schubert G., Geodynamics. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2002

  • [102] Khesin B.E., EppelbaumL.V., The number of geophysical methods required for target classification: quantitative estimation. Geoinformatics, 1997, 8, 1, 31–39.

  • [103] Eppelbaum L., Eppelbaum V., Ben-Avraham Z., Formalization and estimation of integrated geological investigations: Informational Approach. Geoinformatics, 2003, 14, 3, 233–240.

  • [104] Eppelbaum L.V., Nikolaev A.V., Katz Y.I., Space location of the Kiama paleomagnetic hyperzone of inverse polarity in the crust of the eastern Mediterranean. Doklady Earth Sci. (Springer), 2014, 457, 6, 710–714.

  • [105] Eppelbaum L.V., Katz Y.I., First Paleomagnetic Map of the Easternmost Mediterranean Derived from Combined Geophysical- Geological Analysis. Trans. of the 10th EUG Meet., Geoph. Research Abstracts, 2014, Vol. 16, EGU2014-2424, Vienna, Austria, 1–5

  • [106] Erickson A.J., Simmons G., Ryan W.B.F., Review of heat flow data from the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas. In: (Biju-Duval B., Montadert L., Eds.), Intern. Symp. on the Structural History of the Mediterranean Basins, 25th Geol. Congress, Technip, Splite, 1977, 263–280.

  • [107] Cermak V., Heat flow in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. EGS Program and Abstracts, Budapest, 1980, p. 121

  • [108] Verzhbitsky E.V., Geothermal Regime and Tectonics of Marine Areas Bottom along the Alpine-Himalayan Belt. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian) 1996

  • [109] Elgabry M.N., Panza G.F., Badawy A.A., Ibrahim M.K., Imaging a relic of complex tectonics: the lithosphere asthenosphere structure in the Eastern Mediterranean. Terra Nova, 2013, 25, 102–109, doi:10.1111/ter.12011.

  • [110] Sclater J.G., Jaupart C., Galson D., The heat flow through oceanic and continental crust and the heat loss of the Earth. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 1980, 18 (1), 269–311.

  • [111] Sandwell D.T., Garcia E., Soofi K., Wessel P., Smith W.H.F., Towards 1mGal globalmarine gravity from CryoSat-2, Envisat, and Jason-1. The Leading Edge, 2013, 32(8), 892–899.

  • [112] Lapkin I.Y., Katz Y.I., Geological events at the boundary of the Carboniferous and Permian. Izvestiya, USSR Acad. of Sci., Ser.: Geol., 1990, 8, 45–58.

  • [113] Scotese C., Jurassic and Cretaceous plate tectonic reconstructions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeocology, 1991, 87, 493–501.

  • [114] Ben-Avraham Z., Shoham Y., Ginzburg A., Magnetic anomalies in the eastern Mediterranean and the tectonic setting of the Eratosthenes Seamount. Geophys. J. Royal Astron. Soc., 1978, 45(1), 105–123.

  • [115] Ates A., Bilim F., Buyuksarac A., Curie point depth investigation of Central Anatolia, Turkey. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2005, 162, 357–371, doi:10.1007/s00024-004-2605-3.

  • [116] Rybakov M., Voznesensky, V., Ben-Avraham Z., Lazar M., The Niklas anomaly southwest of Cyprus: New insights from combined gravity and magnetic data. Israel J. Earth Sci., 2008, 57, 125–138.

  • [117] Makris J., Wang J. Odintsov S., Udintsev G., The magnetic field of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, In: Geological Structure of the Northeastern Mediterranean (V.A. Krasheninnikov and Hall J.K., Eds.), 1994, 75-87, Jerusalem

  • [118] Eppelbaum L., Ben-Avraham Z., Katz Y., Integrated analysis of magnetic, paleomagnetic and K-Ar data in a tectonic complex region: an example from the Sea of Galilee. Geophys. Res. Lett., 2004, 31, 19, L19602, 1–4, doi:10.1029/2004GL021298.

  • [119] Dvorkin A., Kohn B.P., The Asher volcanics, northern Israel: Petrography, mineralogy, and alteration. Israel J. Earth Sci., 1989, 38, 105–123.

  • [120] Gvirtzman G., Weissbrod T., Baer G., Brener G.J., The age of the Aptian stage and its magnetic events: New Ar-Ar ages and paleomagnetic data from the Negev, Israel. Cretaceous Res., 1996, 17, 293–310.

  • [121] Hirsch F., Picard L., The Jurassic facies of the Levant. Jour. of Petroleum Geology, 1988, 11, 3, 277–308.

  • [122] Eppelbaum L.V., Katz, Y.I., Mineral deposits in Israel: A contemporary view, In: (Eds. Ya’ari A., Zahavi E.D.), Israel: Social, Economic and Political Developments, Nova Science Publ., N.Y., USA, 2012, 1–41.

  • [123] Gvirtzman G., Steinitz G., The Asher Volcanics – an Early Jurassic event in the northern Israel. Geol. Surv. Israel Current Research, 1983, 28–33.

  • [124] Gvirtzman G., Klang A., Rotstein Y., Early Jurassic shield volcano below Mount Carmel: New interpretation of the magnetic and gravity anomalies and implication for Early Jurassic rifting. Israel J. Earth Sci., 1990, 39, 149–159.

  • [125] Garfunkel Z., Derin B., Permian – Early Mesozoic tectonism and connitentalmargin formation in Israel and its implication for the history of the Eastern Mediterranean, In: (Dixon J.E., Robertson A.H.F., Eds.), The Geological Evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean, Geological Soc. of London Spec. Publ., 1984, 17, 187– 201.

  • [126] Malovitskiy Ya.P., Emelyanov E.M., Kazakov O.V., Moskalenko V.N., Osipov G.V., Shimkus K.M., Chumakov I.S., Geological structure of the Mediterranean Sea floor (based on geologicalgeophysical data). Marine Geology, 1975, 18, 231–261.

  • [127] Druckman Y., Triassic paleogeography of southern Israel and the Sinai Peninsula. Proceed. Int. Sympos. Stratig. Alpin-Medit. Trias., 1974, Vienna, 2, 79-86

  • [128] Robertson A.H.F., Mountrakis D. (Eds.), Tectonic Development of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Geol. Society of London, Spec. Publ. 260, 2006

  • [129] Roure F., Casero P., Addoum B., Alpine inversion of the North African margin and delamination of its continental lithosphere. Tectonics 31(TC3006), 2012, 1–28, doi:10.1029/2011TC002989.

  • [130] Stampfli G.M., Borel G.D., A plate tectonic model for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic constrained by dynamic plate boundaries and restored synthetic oceanic isochrones. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2002, 196, 17–33.

  • [131] Muttoni G., Kent D.V., Garzanti E., Brack P., Abrahamsen N., Gaetani M., Early Permian Pangea ’B’ to Late Permian Pangea ’A’. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2003, 215, 379–394, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00452-7.

  • [132] Khain V.E., Tectonics of Continents and Oceans, Scientific World, Moscow (in Russian), 2001.

  • [133] Weissbrod T., The Paleozoic in Israel and Environs. In: (Hall J.K., Krasheninnikov V.A., Hirsch F., Benjamini C., Flexer A., Eds.), Geological framework of the Levant, Vol. II: The Levantine Basin and Israel, Jerusalem, 2005, 283–315.

  • [134] Eide A.E., Torsvik T.H., Paleozoic supercontinental assembly, mantle flushing, and genesis of the Kiaman Superchron. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 1996, 144, 389–402, doi:10.1016/S0012- 821X(96)00176-8.

  • [135] Domeier M., Van der Voo, R., Torsvik T., Paleomagnetism and Pangea: The road to reconciliation. Tectonophysics, 2012, 514– 517, 14–43, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2011.10.021.

  • [136] Muttoni G., Gaetani M., Kent D.V., Sciunnach D., Angiolini L., Berra F. et al. Opening of the Neo-Tethys Ocean and the Pangea B to Pangea A transformation during the Permian. GeoArabia, 2009, 14, 4, 17–48.

  • [137] Burov E.B., 2011. Rheology and strength of the lithosphere. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 28, 1402–1433, doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2011.05.008.

  • [138] Yamasaki T., Stephenson R., Back-arc rifting initiated with a hot and wet continental lithosphere. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2011, 302, 1-2, 172–184, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2010.12.009.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search