A theoretical framework for using humor to reduce the effects of chronic stress on cognitive function in older adults: An integration of findings and methods from diverse areas of psychology

Sasha Mallya 1 , Maureen Reed 1  and Lixia Yang 1
  • 1 Ryerson University, 350 Victoria St., Toronto, Canada
Sasha Mallya
  • Corresponding author
  • Ryerson University, 350 Victoria St., ON M5B 2K3, Toronto, Canada
  • Email
  • Further information
  • Sasha Mallya completed her PhD in Clinical Psychology at Ryerson University in Toronto, Canada. Her research interests involve studying lifestyle factors that promote optimal cognitive function, particularly in older adults. Her graduate research has focused on the effects of mindfulness training on cognitive and psychological well-being in late life.
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
, Maureen Reed
  • Ryerson University, 350 Victoria St., ON M5B 2K3, Toronto, Canada
  • Further information
  • Maureen Reed is a professor in psychological science at Ryerson University. The focus of her research is on perceptual and learning aspects of aging, learning strategies, resiliency, stress coping, resourcefulness and predictors to personal success.
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
and Lixia Yang
  • Ryerson University, 350 Victoria St., ON M5B 2K3, Toronto, Canada
  • Further information
  • Lixia Yang is a professor in psychological science at Ryerson University. Her research focuses on aging and cognition, with specific interests in cognitive plasticity, culture and memory, as well as emotion-cognition interaction in older adults.
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar

Abstract

This paper synthesizes the literature on cognitive aging, emotion regulation, and humor, to provide a theoretical framework for the utility of humor in promoting successful cognitive aging. Many older adults experience some degree of cognitive decline, which is associated with reductions in functional status, independence, and overall quality of life. These losses can result in considerable stress that is chronic in nature. The following discussion proposes humor as a technique that older adults may use to reduce stress and protect cognitive abilities. Humor here is described as a form of cognitive reappraisal, allowing older adults to reappraise daily stressors. Further, it is speculated that humor’s protective value is in the reduction of chronic activation of the physiological stress response systems, which in turn may protect functional integrity of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Because older adults appear to have difficulty solving more complex jokes, we propose that low complexity, self-enhancing humor may be the most useful form of humor for older adults.

  • Adams, Elizabeth R. & Francis A. McGuire. 1986. Is laughter the best medicine? Activities, Adaptation & Aging 8(3–4). 157–175.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bains, Gurinder Singh, Lee S. Berk, Noha Daher, Everett Lohman, Ernie Schwab, Jerrold Petrofsky & Pooja Deshpande. 2014. The effect of humor on short-term memory in older adults: A new component for whole-person wellness. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine 28(2). 16–24.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Bains, Gurinder Singh, Lee S Berk, Everett Lohman, Noha Daher, Jerrold Petrofsky, Ernie Schwab & Pooja Deshpande. 2015. Humor’s effect on short-term memory in healthy and diabetic older adults. Alternative Therapies 21(3). 16–25.

  • Ball, Karlene, Daniel B. Berch, Karin F. Helmers, Jared B. Jobe, Mary D. Leveck, Michael Marsiske, John N. Morris, et al. 2002. Effects of cognitive training interventions with older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association 288(18). 2271–2281.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bennett, Mary P, Janice M Zeller, Lisa Rosenberg & McCann. Judith. 2003. The effect of mirthful laughter on stress and natural killer cell activity. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 9(2). 38–45.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Berk, Lee S., Stanley A. Tan, William F. Fry, Barbara J. Napier, Jerry W. Lee, Richard W. Hubbard, John E. Lewis & William C. Eby. 1989a. Neuroendocrine and stress hormone changes during mirthful laughter. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 298(6). 390–396.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Berk, Lee S., Stanley A. Tan, Barbara J. Napier & William C. Eby. 1989b. Eustress of mirthful laughter modifies natural killer cell activity. Clinical Research 37(1). 115A.

  • Berk, Ronald A. 2001. The active ingredients in humor: Psychophysiological benefits and risks for older adults. Educational Gerontology 27(3–4). 323–339.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bosch, Kathy. 2003. Common stressors for aging adults. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension.

  • Brownell, Hiram H, Dee Michel, John Powelson & Howard Gardner. 1983. Surprise but not coherence: Sensitivity to verbal humor in right-hemisphere patients. Brain and Language 18(1). 20–27.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Cann, Arnie, Adam T. Cann & Jennifer A. Jordan. 2016. Understanding the effects of exposure to humor expressing affiliative and aggressive motivations. Motivation and Emotion 40. 258–267.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Cann, Arnie, Kitty Holt & Lawrence G. Calhoun. 1999. The roles of humor and sense of humor in responses to stressors. Humor - International Journal of Humor Research 12(2). 177–193.

  • Chafe, Wallace. 2007. The importance of not being earnest: The feeling behind laughter and humor. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

  • Charman, Sarah. 2013. Sharing a laugh: The role of humour in relationships between police officers and ambulance staff. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 33(3/4). 152–166.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Chiesa, Alberto, Raffaella Calati & Alessandro Serretti. 2011. Does mindfulness training improve cognitive abilities? A systematic review of neuropsychological findings. Clinical Psychology Review 31(3). 449–464.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Chronister, Julie, Chih Chin Chou, Michael Frain & Elizabeth da Silva Cardoso. 2008. The relationship between social support and rehabilitation related outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Rehabilitation 74(2).16–32.

  • Conrad, Cheryl D. 2008. Chronic stress-induced hippocampal vulnerability: The glucocorticoid vulnerability hypothesis. Reviews in the Neurosciences 19(6). 395–412.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Danzer, Amy, J., Alexander Dale & Herbert L. Klions. 1990. Effect of exposure to humorous stimuli on induced depression. Psychological Reports 66(3). 1027–1036.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Deaner, Stephanie L. & Jasmin T. McConatha. 1993. The relation of humor to depression and personality. Psychological Reports 72(3). 755–763.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Debnam, Katrina, Cheryl H Hold, Eddie M. Clark, David L. Roth & Penny Southward. 2012. Relationship between religious social support and general social support with health behaviors in a national sample of African Americans. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 35. 179–189.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Dixon, Norman F. 1980. Humor-cognitive alternative to stress. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society 33(1). 18.

  • Du, AT, N Schuff, D Amend, MP Laakso, YY Hsu, WJ Jagust, K Yaffe, JH Kramer, B Reed, D Norman & HC Chui. 2001. Magnetic resonance imaging of the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 71(1). 441–447.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Fabrizi, Michael S. & Howard R. Pollio. 1987. A naturalistic study of humorous activity in a third, seventh, and eleventh grade classroom. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 33. 107–128.

  • Fredrickson, Barbara & Robert W. Levenson. 1998. Positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions. Cognition and Emotion 12(2). 191–220.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Fredrickson, Barbara L. 1998. What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology 2(3). 300–319.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Fritz, Heidi L., Leslie N. Russek & Melissa M. Dillon. 2017. Humor use moderates the relation of stressful life events with psychological distress. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 43(6). 845–859.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Fry, William F & Con Rader. 1977. The respiratory components of mirthful laughter. Journal of Biological Psychology 19(2). 39–50.

  • Gelkopf, Marc, Mircea Sigal & Richard Kramer. 1994. Therapeutic use of humor to improve social support in an institutionalized schizophrenic inpatient community. The Journal of Social Psychology 134(2). 175–182.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Gianaros, Peter J., J. Richard Jennings, Lei K. Sheu, Phil J. Greer, Lewis H. Kuller & Karen A. Matthews. 2007. Prospective reports of chronic life stress predict decreased grey matter volume in the hippocampus. NeuroImage 35(2). 795–803.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Gross, James J. 1998. Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74(1). 224–237.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Harm, Jonathan, Sandrine Vieillard & André Didierjean. 2014. Using humour as an extrinsic source of emotion regulation in young and older adults. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 67(10). 1895–1909.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Hellhammer, J., E. Fries, O. W. Schweisthal, W. Schlotz, A. A. Stone & D. Hagemann. 2007. Several daily measurements are necessary to reliably assess the cortisol rise after awakening: State- and trait components. Psychoneuroendocrinology 32(1). 80–86.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Hölzel, Britta K., James Carmody, Mark Vangel, Christina Congleton, Sita M. Yerramsetti, Tim Gard & Sara W. Lazar. 2011. Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 191(1). 36–43.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Ho, Sammy K. 2016. Relationships among humour, self-esteem, and social support to burnout in school teachers. Social Psychology of Education 19. 41–59.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Jackson, Todd. 2006. Relationships between perceived close social support and health practices within community samples of American women and men. The Journal of Psychology 140(3). 229–246.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Janes, Leslie M. & James M. Olson. 2000. Jeer Pressure: The behavioral effects of observing ridicule of others. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26(4). 474–485.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Jenike, M A & M S Albert. 1984. The dexamethasone suppression test in patients with presenile and senile dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 32(0002–8614). 441–444.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Keltner, Dacher & George A. Bonanno. 1997. A study of laughter and dissociation: Distinct correlates of laughter and smiling during bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73(4). 687–702.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Kruse, Barbara G & Mark Prazak. 2006. Humor and older adults: What makes them laugh? Journal of Holistic Nursing 24(3). 188–193.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Lai, Julian C.L., Alice M.L. Chong, Oswald T. Siu, Phil Evans, Cecilia L.W. Chan & Rainbow T.H. Ho. 2010. Humor attenuates the cortisol awakening response in healthy older men. Biological Psychology 84(2). 375–380.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Lamond, Amanda J., Colin A. Depp, Matthew Allison, Robert Langer, Jennifer Reichstadt, David J. Moore, Shahrokh Golshan, Theodore G. Ganiats & Dilip V. Jeste. 2008. Measurement and predictors of resilience among community-dwelling older women. Journal of Psychiatric Research 43(2). 148–154.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, Brian K., Thomas A. Glass, Matthew J. McAtee, Gary S. Wand, Karen Bandeen-Roche, Karen I. Bolla, Brian S. Schwartz, W Shi, K Bandeen-Roche & Meaney Mj. 2007. Associations of salivary cortisol with cognitive function in the Baltimore Memory Study. Archives of General Psychiatry 64(7). 810–818.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Lefcourt, Herbert M. 2001. Humor: The psychology of living buoyantly. Ed. (C. R. Snyder.). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

  • Lewis, Richard S, Ani Nikolova, Dennis J Chang & Nicole Y Weekes. 2008. Examination stress and components of working memory. Stress 11(2). 108–114.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Lie, Chuh-Hyoun, Karsten Specht, John C. Marshall & Gereon R. Fink. 2006. Using fMRI to decompose the neural processes underlying the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. NeuroImage 30(3). 1038–1049.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Lucille., Nahemow, Kathleen A. McCluskey-Fawcett & Paul E. McGhee. 1986. Humor and Aging. Toronto: Academic Press, Inc.

  • Lupien, S, AR Lecours, I Lussier, G Schwartz, NP Nair & MJ Meaney. 1994. Basal cortisol levels and cognitive deficits in human aging. Journal of Neuroscience 14(5). 2893–2903.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Lupien, Sonia J., Mony de Leon, Susan de Santi, Antonio Convit, Chaim Tarshish, N. P. V. Nair, Mira Thakur, Bruce S. McEwen, Richard L. Hauger & Michael J. Meaney. 1998. Cortisol levels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memorydeficits. Nature Neuroscience 1(1). 69–73.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Lupien, Sonia J. & Martin Lepage. 2001. Stress, memory, and the hippocampus: can’t live with it, can’t live without it. Behavioural Brain Research 127. 137–158.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Mak, Wingyun & Brian D Carpenter. 2007. Humor comprehension in older adults. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 13(4). 606–614.

  • Marshall, Gad A., Dorene M. Rentz, Meghan T. Frey, Joseph J. Locascio, Keith A. Johnson & Reisa A. Sperling. 2011. Executive function and instrumental activities of daily living in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia 7(3). 300–308.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, Rod A, Nicholas A Kuiper, L Joan Olinger & Kathryn A Dance. 1993. Humor, coping with stress, self-concept, and psychological well-being. Humor 6. 89.

  • Martin, Rod A., Patricia Puhlik-Doris, Gwen Larsen, Jeanette Gray & Kelly Weir. 2003. Individual differences in uses of humor and their relation to psychological well-being: Development of the humor styles questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality 37(1). 48–75.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Marziali, Elsa, Lynn McDonald & Peter Donahue. 2008. The role of coping humor in the physical and mental health of older adults. Aging & Mental Health 12(6). 713–718.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Masters, Kevin S., Alexandra M. Stillman & Glen I. Spielmans. 2007. Specificity of social support for back pain patients: Do patients care who provides what? Journal of Behavioral Medicine 30(1). 11–20.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Matsumoto, Yoshiko. 2009. Dealing with life changes: Humour in painful self-disclosures by elderly Japanese women. Ageing & Society 29(6). 929–952.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • McEwen, Bruce S. 1998. Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. New England Journal of Medicine 338(3). 171–179.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • McEwen, Bruce S. 2002. Sex, stress and the hippocampus: Allostasis, allostatic load and the aging process. Neurobiology of Aging 23(5). 921–939.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • McEwen, Bruce S. 2004. Protection and damage from acute and chronic stress: allostasis and allostatic overload and relevance to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1032. 1–7.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • McEwen, Bruce S & Robert M Sapolsky. 1995. Stress and cognitive function. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 5(2). 205–216.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • McGhee, Paul E. 1976. Children’s appreciation of humor: A test of the cognitive congruency principle. Child Development 47(2). 420–426.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • McGuire, Francis A, Rosangela Boyd & Ann James. 1992. Therapeutic humor with the elderly. New York, NY: The Haworth Press, Inc.

  • McRae, Kateri, Bethany Ciesielski & James J. Gross. 2012. Unpacking cognitive reappraisal: Goals, tactics, and outcomes. Emotion 12(2). 250–255.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Meerlo, Peter, Andrea Sgoifo & Deborah Suchecki. 2008. Restricted and disrupted sleep: Effects on autonomic function, neuroendocrine stress systems and stress responsivity. Sleep Medicine Reviews 12(3). 197–210.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Moynihan, Jan A, Benjamin P Chapman, Rafael Klorman, Michael S Krasner, Paul R Duberstein, Kirk Warren Brown & Nancy L Talbot. 2013. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for older adults: Effects on executive function, frontal alpha asymmetry and immune function. Neuropsychobiology 68(1). 34–43.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Newman, Michelle Gayle & Arthur A. Stone. 1996. Does humor moderate the effects of experimentally-induced stress? Annals of Behavioral Medicine 18(2). 101–109.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • O’Donnell, Katie, Ellena Badrick, Meena Kumari & Andrew Steptoe. 2008. Psychological coping styles and cortisol over the day in healthy older adults. Psychoneuroendocrinology 33(5). 601–611.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Palmore, Erdman B. 1986. Trends in the health of the aged. The Gerontologist 26(3). 298–302.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Park, Crystal L. 2010. Making sense of the meaning literature: An integrative review of meaning making and its effects on adjustment to stressful life events. Psychological Bulletin 136(2). 257–301.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Polimeni, Joseph & Jeffrey P. Reiss. 2006. The first joke: Exploring the evolutionary origins of humor. Evolutionary Psychology 4. 1.

  • Pruessner, J.C., O.T. Wolf, D.H. Hellhammer, A. Buske-Kirschbaum, K. von Auer, S. Jobst, F. Kaspers & C. Kirschbaum. 1997. Free cortisol levels after awakening: A reliable biological marker for the assessment of adrenocortical activity. Life Sciences 61(26). 2539–2549.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Radley, Jason J. & John H. Morrison. 2005. Repeated stress and structural plasticity in the brain. Ageing Research Reviews 4(2). 271–287.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Rosmond, Roland. 2005. Role of stress in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Psychoneuroendocrinology 30(1). 1–10.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Sacco, William P. & Tovah Yanover. 2006. Diabetes and depression: The role of social support and medical symptoms. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 29(6). 523–531.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Samson, Andrea C., Alana L. Glassco, Ihno A. Lee, James J. Gross & James J. Gross. 2014. Humorous coping and serious reappraisal: Short-term and longer-term effects. Europe’s Journal of Psychology 10(3). 571–581.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Samson, Andrea C. & James J. Gross. 2012. Humour as emotion regulation: The differential consequences of negative versus positive humour. Cognition & Emotion 26(2). 375–384.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Sapolsky, Robert M. 1999. Glucocorticoids, stress, and their adverse neurological effects: Relevance to aging. Experimental Gerontology 34(6). 721–732.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Schaier, A. H. & V. G. Cicirelli. 1976. Age differences in humor comprehension and appreciation in old age. Journal of Gerontology 31(5). 577–582.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Schlotz, Wolff, Juliane Hellhammer, Peter Schulz & Arthur A Stone. 2004. Perceived work overload and chronic worrying predict weekend–weekday differences in the cortisol awakening response. Psychosomatic Medicine 66(2). 207–214.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Seeman, Teresa E., Bruce S. McEwen, Burton H. Singer, Marilyn S. Albert & John W. Rowe. 1997. Increase in urinary cortisol excretion and memory declines: Macarthur studies of successful aging. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 82(8). 2458–2465.

  • Shammi, Prathiba & Donald T Stuss. 2003. The effects of normal aging on humor appreciation. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 9(6). 855–863.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Shiota, Michelle N. & Robert W. Levenson. 2009. Effects of aging on experimentally instructed detached reappraisal, positive reappraisal, and emotional behavior suppression. Psychology and Aging 24(4). 890–900.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Skosnik, Patrick D., Robert T. Chatterton, Tara Swisher & Sohee Park. 2000. Modulation of attentional inhibition by norepinephrine and cortisol after psychological stress. International Journal of Psychophysiology 36(1). 59–68.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Solomon, Jennifer Crew. 1996. Humor and aging well. American Behavioral Scientist 39(3). 249–271.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Starcke, Katrin & Matthias Brand. 2012. Decision making under stress: A selective review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 36(4). 1228–1248.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Tennant, Kathleen F. 1990. Laugh it off: The effect of humor on the well-being of the older adult. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 16(12). 11–17.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Thierry, Anne-Marie, France Javoy, Jacques Glowinski & Seymour S Kety. 1968. Effects of stress on the metabolism of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the central nervous system of the rat. I modifications of norepinephrine turnover. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 163(1). 163–171.

  • Thoits, Peggy A. 2011. Mechanisms linking social ties and support to physical and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 52(2). 145–161.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Toda, Masahiro, Shinsuke Kusakabe, Shingo Nagasawa, Kazuyuki Kitamura & Kanehisa Morimoto. 2007. Effect of laughter on salivary endocrinological stress marker chromogranin A. Biomedical Research 28(2). 115–118.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Umberson, Debra & Jennifer Karas Montez. 2010. Social relationships and health: A flashpoint for health policy. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 51. S54–S66.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Uno, Hideo, Ross Tarara, James G Else, Mbaruk A Suleman & Robert M Sapolsky. 1989. Hippocampal damage associated with prolonged and fatal stress in primates. The Journal of Neuroscience 5. 1705–1711.

  • Watanabe, Yoshifumi, Elizabeth Gould & Bruce S. McEwen. 1992. Stress induces atrophy of apical dendrites of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. Brain Research 588(2). 341–345.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Woolley, Catherine S., Elizabeth Gould & Bruce S. McEwen. 1990. Exposure to excess glucocorticoids alters dendritic morphology of adult hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Brain Research 531(1–2). 225–231.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Yaffe, Kristine, Alexandra J. Fiocco, Karla Lindquist, Eric Vittinghoff, Eleanor M. Simonsick, Anne B. Newman, S. Satterfield, C. Rosano, S. M. Rubin, H. N. Ayonayon & T. B. Harris. 2009. Predictors of maintaining cognitive function in older adults: The health ABC study. Neurology 72(23). 2029–2035.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Yovetich, Nancy A., J Alexander Dale & Mary A. Hudak. 1990. Benefits of humor in reduction of threat-induced anxiety. Psychological Reports 66(1). 51–58.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Zillmann, Dolf. 1983. Disparagement humor. In Handbook of humor researchPaul E. McGhee and Jeffrey H. Goldstein (Eds.), 85–107. New York, NY: Springer.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
Purchase article
Get instant unlimited access to the article.
$42.00
Log in
Already have access? Please log in.


or
Log in with your institution

Journal + Issues

HUMOR, the official publication of the International Society for Humor Studies (ISHS), was established over 25 years ago as an international interdisciplinary forum for the publication of high-quality research papers on humor as an important and universal human faculty. The journal publishes original contributions in areas such as interdisciplinary humor research, humor theory, and humor research methodologies.

Search