Human Capacities for Emotion Recognition and their Implications for Computer Vision

  • 1 Institute for Media Research, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, Germany
  • 2 Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, Germany
Benny Liebold
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  • Benny Liebold is a researcher in the Institute for Media Research at Chemnitz University of Technology. His research focusses on the cognitive and emotional processing of virtual environments with an emphasis on the role of emotions in HCI, presence, game studies, and media effects in general, such as skill transfer and aggressive behavior.
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, René Richter
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  • Dipl. Inf. René Richter is a researcher in the department of computer science at Chemnitz University of Technology. His research field is computational neuroscience, in particular the influence of emotions on attention and how this interaction can be used in the context of HCI.
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, Michael Teichmann
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  • Dipl. Inf. Michael Teichmann works as a researcher in the department of computer science at Chemnitz University of Technology. His research focusses on neuroscientifically grounded computational models of the human visual cortex, in particular self-organization via neural plasticity in recurrent models of the ventral visual stream.
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, Fred H. Hamker
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  • Fred H. Hamker is a professor of artificial intelligence in the department of computer science at Chemnitz University of Technology since 2009. He received his diploma in electrical engineering from the University of Paderborn in 1994 and his Ph. D. in computer science at Ilmenau University of Technology in 1999. He was a postdoc at the Goethe University Frankfurt and the California Institute of Technology (Pasadena, USA). In 2008 he received his venia legendi from the Department of Psychology at the University of Münster.
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and Peter Ohler
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  • Peter Ohler is a professor of media psychology at the Institute for Media Research at Chemnitz University of Technology since 2002. He studied psychology at Saarland University and received his Ph. D. at TU Berlin in 1991. He had postdoc positions at TU Berlin and the University of Passau. In 2000 he received his venia legendi in psychology from TU Berlin. His research interests include the psychology of film, evolutionary psychology, cognitive science, and the psychology of play.
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Abstract

Current models for automated emotion recognition are developed under the assumption that emotion expressions are distinct expression patterns for basic emotions. Thereby, these approaches fail to account for the emotional processes underlying emotion expressions. We review the literature on human emotion processing and suggest an alternative approach to affective computing. We postulate that the generalizability and robustness of these models can be greatly increased by three major steps: (1) modeling emotional processes as a necessary foundation of emotion recognition; (2) basing models of emotional processes on our knowledge about the human brain; (3) conceptualizing emotions based on appraisal processes and thus regarding emotion expressions as expressive behavior linked to these appraisals rather than fixed neuro-motor patterns. Since modeling emotional processes after neurobiological processes can be considered a long-term effort, we suggest that researchers should focus on early appraisals, which evaluate intrinsic stimulus properties with little higher cortical involvement. With this goal in mind, we focus on the amygdala and its neural connectivity pattern as a promising structure for early emotional processing. We derive a model for the amygdala-visual cortex circuit from the current state of neuroscientific research. This model is capable of conditioning visual stimuli with body reactions to enable rapid emotional processing of stimuli consistent with early stages of psychological appraisal theories. Additionally, amygdala activity can feed back to visual areas to modulate attention allocation according to the emotional relevance of a stimulus. The implications of the model considering other approaches to automated emotion recognition are discussed.

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