The content of this paper aims to assist in the development and implementation of microgrids by addressing the challenges and possible solutions for their protection systems. Therefore, an overview of some protection methods available in the literature that can be implemented to ensure a safe and reliable microgrid operation is presented, including the most common protection devices and earthing schemes that can be adopted in low voltage distribution systems. In addition, this paper also presents a brief fault analysis of internal faults at three different locations in an industrial microgrid with centralized and decentralized deployment of energy sources, as well as a short-circuit analysis of symmetric and asymmetric faults at these faulty locations. An approximate method based on the calculation of the equivalent impedance seen from the fault location is used to determine the fault currents. This study is made to observe how microgrids with different configurations perform in the event of internal faults.
It is demonstrated in this work that setting a specific protection strategy to allow the microgrid to operate effectively during both operation modes can be problematic and expensive in most situations. With this in mind, additional effort is necessary to engineer and implement new protection approaches that can overcome the limitations of protection systems in future microgrids.
Camacho A, Castilla M, Canziani F, Moreira C, Coelho P, Gomes M, et al. Performance comparison of grid-faulty control schemes for inverter-based industrial microgrids. MDPI, Energies J. 2017;10:2096. doi:10.3390. December 2017.
Hatziargyriou N. Microgrids: architectures and Control. Indianapolis, IA: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2014
Kennedy J, Ciufo P, Agalgaonkar A. 2012. Intelligent load management in microgrids. in Proc IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, Jul. 2012: 1–8.
Moslehi K, Kumar R. A reliability perspective of the smart grid. Proc IEEE Trans Smart Grid. 2010;1:57–64. Jun. 2010.
Buigues G, Dysko A, Valverde V, Zamora I, Fernández E. 2013. Microgrid protection: technical challenges and existing techniques. in Proc International Conference on Renewable Energies And Power Quality (ICREPQ’13), Mar. 2013, no. 11.
Loix T, Wijnhoven T, Deconick G. 2009. Protection of microgrids with a high penetration of inverter-coupled energy sources. in Proc CIGRE/IEEE PES Joint Symposium, Jul. 2009: 1–6.
Malla SG, Bhende CN. Study of stand-alone microgrid under condition of faults on distribution line. Int J Emerging Electr Power Syst. 2014;15:501–12.
Dewadasa M, Ghosh A, Ledwich G. 2011. Protection of microgrids using differential relays. in Proc 21st Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference, Sep. 2011: 1–6.
Hosseini SA, Abyaneh HA, Sadeghi HH, Razavi F, Nasiri A. An overview of microgrid protection methods and the factors involved. Renew Sustainable Energ Rev. 2016;64:174–86.
Shah AM, Bhalja B. A new adaptive differential protection scheme for tap changing power transformer. Int J Emerging Electr Power Syst. 2015;16:339–48.
Nikkhajoei H, Lasseter RH. 2007. Microgrid protection. in Proc IEEE PES General Meeting, Jun. 2007: 1–6.
Akila AA, Helal A, Eldesouki H. Protection of active distribution systems with DGs. Int J Emerging Electr Power Syst. 2015;16:399–412.
ABB Network Partner. 1998. “ANSI numbers - IEEE Standard Electric Power System Device Function Numbers acc. to IEEE C.37.2-1991.” Jul. 1998 (1MRB520165-Ben).
Patel UJ, Chothani NG, Bhatt PJ. Distance relaying with power swing detection based on voltage and reactive power sensitivity. Int J Emerging Electr Power Syst. 2016;17:27–38.
Al-Nasseri H, Redfern MA, Li F. A voltage based protection for micro-grids containing power electronic converters. Proc 2006 IEEE Power Eng Soc Gen Meet. 2006;2006:1–7.
Perera N, Rajapakse AD. Agent-based protection scheme for distribution networks with distributed generators. Proc 2006 IEEE Power Eng Soc Gen Meet. 2006;2006:1–6.
Dewadasa M, Ghosh A, Ledwich G. 2008. Distance protection solution for a converter controlled microgrid. in Proc 15th National Power Systems Conference, Dec. 2008: 1–661.
Oudalov A, Fidigatti A. Adaptive network protection in microgrids. Int J Distrib Energy Resour. 2009;2009:201–26.
Kar S, Samantaray SR Time-frequency transform-based differential scheme for microgrid protection. IET Gener Transm Distrib. 2014;8:310–20.
Zarei SF, Parniani M. A comprehensive digital protection scheme for low-voltage microgrids with inverter-based and conventional distributed generations. IEEE Trans Power Deliv. 2017;32:441–52. Feb. 2017.
Saleh KA, El-Saadany EF. Optimal protection coordination for microgrids considering N-1 contingency. IEEE Trans Ind Inform. 2017;13:2270–78. Oct. 2017.
Núñez-Mata O, Palma-Behnke R, Valencia F, Mendoza-Araya P, Jiménez-Estévez G. Adaptive protection system for microgrids based on a robust optimization strategy, MDPI. Energies J. 2018;11:308. doi:10.3390. February 2018.
Monadi M, Gavriluta C, Luna A, Candela JI, Rodriguez P. Centralized protection strategy for medium voltage DC microgrids. IEEE Trans Power Deliv. 2017;32:430–40. Feb. 2017.
Habib HF, Youssef T, Cintuglu MH, Mohammed OA. Multi-agent-based technique for fault location, isolation, and service restoration. IEEE Trans Power Deliv. 2017;53:1841–51. Jun. 2017.
BoTong L, YongLi L, Tao M. 2011. Research on earthing schemes in LV microgrids. in Proc International Conference on Advanced Power System Automation and Protection, Oct. 2011: 1003–07.
Kamel RM, Chaouachi A, Nagasaka K. Comparison the performances of three earthing systems for micro-grid protection during the grid connected mode. Smart Grid Renew Energy. 2011;2:206–15.
Bandeiras F, Gomes M, Coelho P, Fernandes J, Camacho A, Castilla M. Microgrid architecture evaluation for small and medium size industries. Int J Emerging Electr Power Syst. 2018;19:1–12.
Boutsika TN, Papathanassiou SA. Short-circuit calculations in networks with distributed generation. Electr Power Syst Res. 2008;78:1181–91.
ABB SACE. MV/LV transformer substations: theory and examples of short-circuit calculation. QT Tech Appl Pap. 2008;2:1–42. Feb. 2008.
Momeneh A, Castilla M, Ghahderijani MM, Camacho A, Vicuña LG. 2016. Design and control of a small-scale industrial microgrid in islanding mode. in Proc 42nd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Elec-tronics Society, Oct. 2016: 72–77.
Loix T, Wijnhoven T, Deconinck G. Protection of microgrids with a high penetration of inverter-coupled energy sources. integration of wide-scale renewable resources into the power delivery system. Proc CIGRE/IEEE PES Jt Symp. 2009;1:29–31. Jul. 2009.
IJEEPS publishes significant research and scholarship related to latest and up-and-coming developments in power systems. The mandate of the journal is to assemble high quality papers from the recent research and development efforts in new technologies and techniques for generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of electric power.
01 Jan 2004
S A Khaparde, Eugeniusz Rosolowski, Tapan K Saha and Fei Gao