Eastern European migration to Portugal is a relatively recent yet significant phenomenon due to its impact on national legislation and discourses about language, citizenship and identity. Along with other migration movements to Portugal, it has also brought about changes in state policies. The monolingual order within the Portuguese education system has been reinforced through the adoption of the notion of ‘Portuguese as a non-native language’ and the creation of different categories of speakers of ‘other’ languages. While these discourses predominate within the national educational system, other discursive spaces (such as complementary schools and playgroups) are being constructed, on the margins of Portuguese society, where other languages and literacies are being learned and used, alongside Portuguese. This paper presents some insights from longitudinal ethnographic research (2004–2013) that was carried out in a complementary school for Russian-speaking children in Portugal run by their parents and grandparents. It looks into the complex ways in which literacy ideologies and practices were reproduced, contested and negotiated in this particular discursive space. It also shows how students drew on the language, literacy and semiotic resources within their communicative repertoires in different ways as they responded agentively to tasks set by the teacher. The paper concludes with reflections on the potential of the complementary school as a “safe space” for fostering flexible multilingual pedagogies.
Ança, Maria Helena (ed.). 2007. Aproximações à Língua Portuguesa. Aveiro: Universidade de Aveiro.
Angermayer, Phillip Sebastian. 2012. Bilingualism meets digraphia. In Mark Sebba, Shahrzad Mahootian & Carla Jonsson (eds.), Language mixing and code-switching in writing. Approaches to mixed-language written discourse, 255–272. London: Routledge.
Conteh, Jean & Avril Brock. 2011. ‘Safe spaces’? Sites of bilingualism for young learners in home, school and community. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 14(3). 347–360.10.1080/13670050.2010.486850)| false
Direcção-Geral de Inovação e Desenvolvimento Curricular [DGIDC]. 2005. Português Língua Não Materna no Currículo Nacional. Documento orientador. Lisbon: Ministério da Educação, DGIDC.
Ferreira, Teresa Alexandra dos Santos. 2012. Apropriação do Português por adultos eslavófonos: O Tempo e o Aspecto. Universidade de Aveiro PhD thesis.
García, Ofélia & Rosario Torres-Guevara. 2010. Monoglossic ideologies and language policies in the education of the US Latinas/os. In Enrique Murillo, Sofía Villenas, Ruth Trinidad Galván, Juan Sánchez Muñoz, Corinne Martínez & Margarita Machado-Casas (eds.), Handbook of Latinos and Education: Research, theory and practice, 182–194. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Hornberger, Nancy. 2002. Multilingual language policies and the continua of biliteracy: An ecological approach. Language Policy 1. 27–51.
Hymes, Dell. 1996. Ethnography, linguistics, narrative inequality: Toward an understanding of voice. London: Taylor and Francis.
IDSS [Institute for Demography and Social Studies NAS of Ukraine]. 2004. First All-National Population Census: historical, methodological, social, economic, ethnic aspects. Kyiv: IDSS. http://2001.ukrcensus.gov.ua/eng/publications. (accessed 25 October 2017).
Ivanič, Roz. 1998. Writing and identity: The discoursal construction of identity in academic writing. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Keating, Clara & Olga Solovova. 2011. Multilingual dynamics among Portuguese-based migrant contexts in Europe. Journal of Pragmatics 43. 1251–1263.
Keating, Clara, Olga Solovova & Olga Barradas. 2014. Language policies, multilingualism and migrations: Towards a polycentric approach to the values of Portuguese in European Space. In Luiz Paulo Moita Lopes (ed.), Global Portuguese: Linguistic ideologies in late modernity, 144–162. London: Routledge.
Kenner, Charmian. 2004. Becoming Biliterate. Young children learning different writing systems. Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books.
King, Kendal, Lyn Fogle & Aubrey Logan-Terry. 2008. Family language policy. Language and Linguistics Compass 2(5). 907–922.
Leiria, Isabel, Maria João Queiroga & Nuno Verdial Soares. 2005. Português Língua Não Materna no Currículo Nacional. Perfis Linguísticos. Lisboa: Direcção Geral de Inovação e Desenvolvimento Curricular.
Leung, Constant, Roxy Harris & Ben Rampton. 1997. The idealised native speaker, reified ethnicities and classroom realities: Contemporary issues in TESOL. Working Papers in Urban Language and Literacies. King’s College London.
Maguire, Mary & Xiao Lan Curdt-Christiansen. 2007. Multiple schools, languages, experiences and affiliations: Ideological becomings and positionings. Heritage Language Journal 5(1). 50–78.
Martins, António Joaquim Sota. 2005. A Escola e a Escolarização em Portugal: Representações dos Imigrantes da Europa de Leste. Lisboa: Universidade Aberta MA Thesis.
Mateus, Maria Helena Mira. 2011. Diversidade Linguística na Escola Portuguesa. Revista Lusófona de Educação 18. 13–24.
Medina, José. 2005. Language: Key concepts in philosophy. London and New York: Continuum.
Norton, Bonny. 2000. Identity and language learning. Harlow: Pearson Education.
Ormerod, Fiona & Roz Ivanič. 2005. Texts in Practices. Interpreting the physical characteristics of children’s project work. In David Barton, Mary Hamilton & Ivanič Roz (eds.), Situated Literacies: Reading and writing in context, 91–107. London: Routledge.
Pavlenko, Aneta & Adrian Blackledge. 2004. Negotiation of identities in multilingual contexts. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Pinto, Paulo Feytor. 2008. Política de língua na democracia portuguesa (1974–2004). Lisbon: Universidade Aberta PhD Thesis.
Pratt, Mary Louise. 1987. Linguistic utopias. In N. Fabb, D. Attridge, A. Durant & C. McCabe (eds.), The linguistics of writing: Arguments between language and literature. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Rampton, Ben. 1995. Crossing: Language and ethnicity among adolescents. London and New York: Longman.
Saxena, Mukul. 2000. Taking account of history and culture in community-based research on multilingual literacy. In Marilyn Martin-Jones & Kathryn Jones (eds.), Multilingual literacies: Reading and writing different worlds, 275–298. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Sebba, Mark. 2012. Researching and theorising multilingual texts. In Mark Sebba, Shahrzad Mahootian & Carla Jonsson (eds.), Language mixing and code-switching in writing. Approaches to mixed-language written discourse, 1–26. London: Routledge.
Silva, Catarina Pereira. 2009. Oposições aspectuais em português como língua segunda: o caso dos falantes de russo em contexto de imersão. Universidade de Coimbra MA thesis.
Solovova, Olga. 2006. Literacy practices among children of Eastern European immigrants in Portugal. Universidade de Coimbra MA Thesis.
Solovova, Olga. 2013. (In)-Between a rock and a hard place: notes for an ecology of language policies from a complementary school for Eastern European children in Portugal. Universidade de Coimbra PhD Thesis.
Street, Brian. 2000. Literacy events and literacy practices: theory and practice in the New Literacy Studies. In M. Martin-Jones & K. Jones (eds.), Multilingual literacies: Reading and writing different worlds, 17–29. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
IJSL is dedicated to the development of the sociology of language as a truly international and interdisciplinary field in which various approaches - theoretical and empirical - supplement and complement each other, contributing thereby to the growth of language-related knowledge, applications, values and sensitivities. The journal features topically-focused issues with individual contributions on small languages and small language communities.