Global satellite navigation systems (GNSS) are a standard measurement device for deformation monitoring. In many applications, double-differences are used to reduce distance dependent systematic effects, as well as to eliminate the receiver and satellites clock errors. However, due to the navigation principle of one way ranging used in GPS, the geometry of the subsequent adjustment is weakened. As a result, the height component is generally determined three times less precisely than the horizontal coordinates. In addition, large correlations between the height and elevation dependent effects exist such as tropospheric refraction, mismodelled phase center variations, or multipath which restricts the attainable accuracy. However, for a kinematic analysis, i. e. for estimating high rate coordinate time series, the situation can be significantly improved if a common clock is connected to different GNSS receivers in a network or on a baseline. Consequently, between-station single-differences are sufficient to solve for the baseline coordinates. The positioning geometry is significantly improved which is reflected by a reduction of the standard deviation of kinematic heights by about a factor 3 underlining the benefits of this new approach. Real data from baselines at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt campus at Braunschweig where receivers are connected over 290 m via an optical fiber link to a common clock was analysed.
Avallone, A., Marzario, M., Cirella, A., Piatanesi, A., Rovelli, A., Di Alessandro, C., D’Anastasio, E., D’Agostino, N., Giuliani, R., Mattone, M., (2011). Very high rate (10 Hz) GPS seismology for moderate-magnitude earthquakes: The case of the Mw 6.3 L’Aquila (central Italy) event, J.Geophys. Res., 116, B02305.
Baarda, W., (1968). A Testing Procedure for Use in Geodetic Networks. Neth. Geod. Comm. Publ. on Geodesy, new series, Vol. 2, No. 5, Delft.
Bischof, C. and Schön, S., (2013). Performance Evaluation of Different High-Rate GPS Receivers under Various Dynamic Stress Scenarios, Proceedings of the European Navigation Conference (ENC) 2013, April 23.–25., Vienna, Austria.
Brown, A. and Sturza, M., (1990). The Effect of Geometry on Integrity Monitoring Performance. Presented at the Institute of Navigation Annual Meeting, June 1990.
Brückl, E., Brunner, F. K., Lang. E, Mertl, S., Müller, M., Stary, U., (2013). The Gradenbach Observatory—monitoring deep-seated gravitational slope deformation by geodetic, hydrological, and seismological methods. Landslides 10:815–829.
Häberling, S., Rothacher, M., Zhang, Y., Clinton, J., Geiger, A., (2015). Assessment of high-rate GPS using a single-axis shake table. Journal of Geodesy 89(7):697–709.
Kim, D., Langley, R., Bond, J., Chranowski, A., (2003). Local deformation monitoring using GPS in an open pit mine: initial study. GPS Solutions. 7:176–185.
Krawinkel T., Schön, S., (2015). Benefits of receiver clock modeling in code-based GNSS navigation, GPS Solutions online first. DOI: .
Lovse, J., Teskey, W., Lachapelle, G., Cannon, E., (1994): Dynamic deformation Monitoring of Tall Structures using GPS Technology, Journal of Surveying Engineering 121(1):35–40.10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9453(1995)121:1(35))| false
Macias-Valadez, D., Santerre, R., Larochelle, S., Landry, R., (2012). Improving vertical GPS precision with a GPS-over-fiber architecture and real-time relative delay calibration. GPS Solutions, 16(4):449–462.
Malet, J.-P., Maquaire, O., Calais, E., (2002). The use of Global Positioning System for the continuous monitoring of landslides. Application to the Super-Sauze earthflow (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France). Geomorphology, 43: 33–54.
Moschas, F. and Stiros, S., (2014). PLL bandwidth and noise in 100 Hz GPS measurements. GPS Solutions, 19(2), 173–185.
Moschas, F. and Stiros, S., (2015). Dynamic Deflections of a Stiff Footbridge Using 100-Hz GNSS and Accelerometer Data. Journal of Surveying Engineering, 04015003.10.1061/(ASCE)SU.1943-5428.0000146)| false
Pollinger F. et al. (2015), Metrology for Long Distance Surveying: A Joint Attempt to Improve Traceability of Long Distance Measurements. IAG 150 Years - Proceedings of the 2013 IAG Scientific Assembly, Potsdam, Germany, 1–6 September, 2013, International Association of Geodesy Symposia, Vol. 143, Springer International Publishing Switzerland, doi:.
Pollinger F. et al. (2015), Metrology for Long Distance Surveying: A Joint Attempt to Improve Traceability of Long Distance Measurements. IAG 150 Years - Proceedings of the 2013 IAG Scientific Assembly, Potsdam, Germany, 1–6 September, 2013, International Association of Geodesy Symposia, Vol. 143, Springer International Publishing Switzerland, doi:10.1007/1345_2015_154.)| false
Weinbach, U. and Schön, S., (2009). Evaluation of the clock stability of geodetic GPS receivers connected to an external oscillator, Proc. ION GNSS 2009, Savannah, GA, USA, 22–25 September 2009, 3317–3328.
Weinbach, U. and Schön, S., (2011). GNSS receiver clock modeling when using high-precision oscillators and its impact on PPP, Adv. Space Res.,47(2), 229–238.
Weinbach, U., (2013). Feasibility and impact of receiver clock modeling in precise GPS data analysis, Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten der Fachrichtung Geodäsie und Geoinformatik der Leibniz Universität Hannover, Dissertation Nr. 303.
Wieser, A., Brunner, F. K., (2002). Analysis of Bridge Deformations using Continuous GPS Measurements In: Kopáčik A. and Kyrinovič P. (Eds.) INGEO 2002, 2nd Conference of Engineering Surveying, Bratislava: 45–52. (2002).
Xu, P., Shi, C., Fang, R., Liu, J., Niu, X., Zhang, Q., Yanagidani, T., (2013). High-rate precise point positioning (PPP) to measure seismic wave motions: an experimental comparison of GPS PPP with inertial measurement units. Journal of Geodesy 87(4):361–372.
This journal is a forum for research articles in the area of application of geodesy to engineering and other natural sciences. It publishes innovative contributions on sensor developments, multi-sensor systems and sensor data fusion focusing on the capture of georeferenced data. The scope covers various other topics related to applied geodesy, such as optical and microwave 3-D measurement techniques and other sensors for geotechnical measurements.