Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves improves glucose tolerance, glycogen synthesis and lipid metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

Luqman A. Olayaki 1 , Justice E. Irekpita 1 , Musa T. Yakubu 2 , and Opeolu O. Ojo 3
  • 1 Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • 2 Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • 3 School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Londonderry, UK
Luqman A. Olayaki, Justice E. Irekpita, Musa T. Yakubu and Opeolu O. Ojo

Abstract

Background: Glucose-lowering effects of Moringa oleifera extracts have been reported. However, the mechanism for its hypoglycemic effects is not yet understood. This study investigated the effect of oral administration of methanolic extracts of M. oleifera (MOLE) on glucose tolerance, glycogen synthesis, and lipid metabolism in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes.

Methods: MOLE was screened for key phytochemicals and its total flavonoids and phenolic contents were quantified. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg BW alloxan. Normal and diabetic control rats received saline, while rats in other groups received 300 or 600 mg/kg body weight of MOLE or metformin (100 mg/kg body weight of metformin) for 6 weeks. Food intake and body weight were monitored throughout the experiment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance was assessed and serum glucose, insulin, and lipids were measured at the end of the experiment. Liver and muscle glycogen synthase activities, glycogen content, and glucose uptake were determined.

Results: Administration of MOLE did not affect food intake but inhibited weight loss, significantly (p<0.01) improved glucose tolerance, and increased serum insulin levels by 1.3–1.7-fold (p<0.01). MOLE treatment significantly (p<0.001) reduced serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and enhanced serum level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) by 2.4- to 3.2-fold (p<0.001). Glycogen synthase activities and glycogen contents were higher in MOLE-treated rats compared with rats receiving metformin or saline and the extract improved glucose uptake by 49%–59% (p<0.01).

Conclusions: These results showed that hypoglycemic effects of MOLE might be mediated through the stimulation of insulin release leading to enhanced glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis.

  • 1.

    Agius L. New hepatic targets for glycaemic control in diabetes. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;21:587–605.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Standaert ML, Ortmeyer HK, Sajan MP, Kanoh Y, Bandyopadhyay G, Hansen BC, et al. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes in monkeys is linked to a defect in insulin activation of protein kinase C-zeta/lambda/iota. Diabetes 2002;51:2936–43.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Craig ME, Hattersley A, Donaghue KC. Definition, epidemiology and classification of diabetes in children and adolescents. Pediatr Diabetes 2009;10:3–12.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Siddhuraju P, Becker K. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. J Agr Food Chem 2003;51:2144–55.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Luqman S, Srivastava S, Kumar R, Maurya AK, Chanda D. Experimental assessment of Moringa oleifera leaf and fruit for its antistress, antioxidant, and scavenging potential using in vitro and in vivo assays. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012;519084:1–12.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Pal SK, Mukherjee PK, Saha BP. Studies on the antiulcer activity of Moringa leaf extract on gastric ulcer models in rats. Phytotherapy Research 1995;9:463–5.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Pal SK, Mukherjee P, Kaha K, Pal M, Saha BP. Antimicrobial action of the leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Anc Sci Life 1995;14:197–9.

  • 8.

    Thurber MD, Fahey JW. Adoption of Moringa to combat under-nutrition viewed through the lens of the “Diffusion of innovations” theory. Ecol Food Nutr 2009;48:212–5.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Tahiliani P, Kar A. Role of Moringa leaf extract in the regulation of thyroid hormone status in adult male and female rats. Pharmacol Res 2000;41:319–23.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Kar A, Choudhary BK, Bandyopadhyay NG. Comparative evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats. J Ethnophamacol 2003;l84:105–8.

  • 11.

    Edoga CO, Njoku OO, Amadi EN, Okeke JJ. Blood sugar lowering effect of Moringa Lam in albino rats. Int J Sci Tech 2013;3:88–90.

  • 12.

    Yassa HD, Tohamy AF. Extract of Moringa leaves ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in adult rats. Acactions ota Histochemica 2014;116:844–54.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Ojo OO. In vitro insulinotropic of various extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves. Nig J Biotech 2014;26:14–20.

  • 14.

    Saeed M, Khan MR, Shabbir M. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of whole plant extracts Torilis leptophylla L. BMC Complement Altern Med 2012;12:221.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Kim DO, Jeong SW, Lee CY. Antioxidant capacity of phenolic phytochemicals from various cultivars of plums. Food Chem 2003;81:321–6.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Park YS, Jung ST, Kang SG, Heo BK, Arancibia-Avila P, Toledo F, et al. Antioxidants and proteins in ethylene-treated kiwifruits. Food Chem 2008;107:640–8.

  • 17.

    Kim J, Park Y. Antidiabetic effect of sorghum extract on hepatic gluconeogenesis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nutr Metab 2012;9:106.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Borst SE, Snellen HG, Lai HL. Metformin treatment enhances insulin stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle of Sprague Dawley rats. Life Sci 2000;67:165–74.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Lachin T, Reza H. Anti diabetic effect of cherries in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov 2012;6:67–72.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Silva-Sousa YT, Peres LC, Foss MC. Enamel hypoplasia in a litter of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Braz Dental J 2003;14:87–93.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Panneerselvam RS, Govindaswamy S. Effects of sodium molybdate on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Nutr Biochem 2002;13:21–6.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Lenzen RS, Panten MF. Alloxan: history and mechanism of action. Diabetologia 1998;31:337–42.

  • 23.

    Francis JA, Jayaprakasam B, Olson LK, Nair MG. Insulin secretagogues from Moringa oleifera with cyclooxygenase enzyme and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities. Helv Chim Acta 2004;87:317–26.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Jaiswal D, Kumar RP, Kumar A, Mehta S, Watal G. Effect of Moringa Oleifera Lam. leaves aqueous extract therapy on hyperglycemic rats. J Ethnophamacol 2009;123:392–6.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Dieye AM, Sarr A, Diop SN, Ndiaye M, Sy GY, Diarra M, et al. Medicinal plants and the treatment of diabetes in Sengal; survey with patients. Fundam Clin Pharm 2008;2:211–6.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Karthivashan G, Tangestani Fard M, Arulselvan P, Abas F, Fakurazi S. Identification of bioactive candidate compounds responsible for oxidative challenge from hydro-ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. J Food Sci 2013;78: C1368–75.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Liu X, Kim J, Li Y, Li J, Liu F, Chen X. Tannic acid stimulates glucose transport and inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. J Nutri 2005;135:165–71.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Velayutham R, Sankaradoss N, Ahamed KF. Protective effect of tannins from Ficus racemosa in hypercholesterolemia and diabetes induced vascular tissue damage in rats. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2012;5:367–73.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Musabayane CT, Mahlalela N, Shode FO, Ojewole JA. Effects of Syzygium cordatum (Hochst.) [Myrtaceae] leaf extract on plasma glucose and hepatic glycogen in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;97:485–90.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Vats V, Yadav SP, Grover JK. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves partially attenuates streptozotocin induced alterations in glycogen content and carbohydrate metabolism in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;90:155–60.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer, L. Biochemistry, 5th ed. New York: W H Freeman, 2004.

  • 32.

    Nelson DL, Cox MM. Lehninger principles of biochemistry, 4th ed. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2004:586.

  • 33.

    Krssak M, Brehm A, Bernroider E, Anderwald C, Nowotny P, Man CD, et al. Alterations in postprandial hepatic glycogen metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2004;53:3048–56.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Saltiel AR. New perspectives into the molecular pathogenesis and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Cell 2001;04:517–29.

  • 35.

    Shirwaikar AK, Barik R. Effect of aqueous bark extract of Garuga pinnata Roxb. in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type II diabetes mellitus. J Ethnophamacol 2006;107:285–90.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Fuhrman B, Aviram M. Flavonoids protect LDL from oxidation and attenuate atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol 2001;12:41–8.

  • 37.

    Leontowics HS, Gorinstein S, Lojek A, Leontowics M, Soliva-Fortuny R, Park YS, et al. Comparative content of some bioactive compounds in apples, peaches and pears and their influence on lipids and antioxidant capacity in rats. J Nutri Biochem 2002;13:603–10.

Purchase article
Get instant unlimited access to the article.
$42.00
Log in
Already have access? Please log in.


or
Log in with your institution

Journal + Issues

Search