Neuroprotective Effects of the Anthocleista Schweinfurthii Gilg. (Loganiaceae) Stem Bark Extract in Postmenopause-Like Model of Ovariectomized Wistar Rats

Ngoungoure Madeleine Chantal 1 , Dzeufiet Djomeni Paul Désiré 1 , Bilanda Danielle Caude 1 , Mengue Ngandena Yolande Sandrine 1 , Mbolang Nguegang Lohik 1 , Mballa Marguerite Francine 1 , Dzekui Tchuo Larissa 1 , Kameni Poumeni Mireille 1  and Kamtchouing Pierre 1
  • 1 Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon
Ngoungoure Madeleine Chantal
  • Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon
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, Dzeufiet Djomeni Paul Désiré
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  • Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon
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, Bilanda Danielle Caude
  • Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon
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, Mengue Ngandena Yolande Sandrine
  • Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon
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, Mbolang Nguegang Lohik
  • Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon
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, Mballa Marguerite Francine
  • Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon
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, Dzekui Tchuo Larissa
  • Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon
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, Kameni Poumeni Mireille
  • Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon
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and Kamtchouing Pierre
  • Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon
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Abstract

Background

Estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal period causes severe neuroendocrine changes in brain which influences memory and other nervous functions. Anthocleista schweinfurthii is used traditionally to treat female infertility and menopause related symptoms. This study was performed to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of aqueous extract of Anthocleista schweinfurthii on brain in a postmenopause-like model of ovariectomized Wistar rats.

Methods

Thirty animals were sham-operated or ovariectomized (Ovx) 84 days after surgery, six groups of five rats each were daily treated orally during 28 days with: distilled water for groups 1 (sham-operated) and 2 (Ovx), estradiol valerate (group 3) and the three doses of extracts {groups 4, 5 and 6 (Ovx)}. Biochemical and histological evaluations focused on brain.

Results

Compared to sham-operated control, ovariectomy decreased total protein levels in brain (p<0.01) which was increased by plant extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg (p<0.05), underlying its anabolic properties. Ovariectomy significantly decreased magnesium levels in brain (p<0.001). Anthocleista schweinfurthii increased significantly magnesium levels (p<0.01), showing its capacity to act on synaptic conduction. Ovariectomy induced oxidative stress by increasing malondialdehyde levels (p<0.05) and decreasing reduced glutathione levels (p<0.05) in brain. The plant extract exhibited antioxidative activity by reducing malondialdehyde levels and increasing glutathione levels in brain. Damage in brain structure which was caused by ovariectomy disappeared following the treatment.

Conclusions

Results suggest that Anthocleista schweinfurthii may have neuroprotective effects in Ovx Wistar rats by increasing total protein, magnesium levels and reducing oxidative stress in brain.

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The Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine focuses on evidence concerning the efficacy and safety of complementary and alternative medical (CAM) whole systems, practices, interventions and natural health products, including herbal medicines.

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