The aim of this study was to analyze thyroid hormones and antibodies, ferritin, vitamins B12 and D, adrenal and gonadal steroid levels, and celiac antibodies in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Between February 2014 and July 2014, a total of 77 children and adolescents (31 girls, 46 boys) who were admitted to the Van Training and Research Hospital were included in the study. The study population was divided into three groups including ADHD (n=34), ASD (n=16), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=27). The diagnosis of ADHD was made on the basis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and DSM-4 Turkish version with the diagnostic interview and Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale (DBDRS). The diagnosis of ASD was based on the DSM-4 and DSM-5 Turkish version with the diagnostic interview and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The blood samples were obtained between 8:00 and 9:00 A.M.
There was a statistically significant difference in vitamin B12 and D levels and ferritin values among the three groups. The ASD group had the highest ferritin and the lowest vitamins B12 and D levels. Vitamin D levels of the ADHD group were significantly lower compared to the healthy controls.
Our study results highlight the importance of supplementation of vitamins B12 and D in the ASD and ADHD patients.
Childress AC, Berry SA. Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents. Drugs 2012;72:309–25.
Biederman J. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a selective overview. Biol Psychiatry 2005;57:1215–20.
Parisi P, Villa MP, Donfrancesco R, Miano S, Paolino MC, et al. Could treatment of iron deficiency both improve ADHD and reduce cardiovascular risk during treatment with ADHD drugs? Med Hypotheses 2012;79:246–9.
Kolevzon A, Gross R, Reichenberg A. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2007;161:326–33.
Gardener H, Spiegelman D, Buka SL. Prenatal risk factors for autism: comprehensive meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 2009;195:7–14.
Cannell JJ, Grant WB. What is the role of vitamin D in Autism? Dermatoendocrinol 2013;5:1–6.
Kamal M, Bener A, Ehlayel MS. Is high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency a correlate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2014;6:73–8.
Ruta L, Ingudomnukul E, Taylor K, Chakrabarti B, Baron-Cohen S. Increased serum androstenedione in adults with autism spectrum conditions. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2011;36:1154–63.
Holtmann M, Duketis E, Goth K, Poustka L, Boelte S. Severe affective and behavioral dysregulation in youth is associated with increased serum TSH. J Affect Disord 2010;121:184–8.
Goksugur SB, Tufan AE, Semiz M, Gunes C, Bekdas M, et al. Vitamin D status in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Pediatr Int 2014;56:515–9.
Burne TH, O’Loan J, Splatt K, Alexander S, McGrath JJ, et al. Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency alters pup-retrieval but not isolation-induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations in the rat. Physiol Behav 2011;102:201–4.
Eyles DW, Burne TH, McGrath JJ. Vitamin D, effects on brain development, adult brain function and the links between low levels of vitamin D and neuropsychiatric disease. Front Neuroendocrinol 2013;34:47–64.
Kočovská E, Andorsdóttir G, Weihe P, Halling J, Fernell E, et al. Vitamin D in the general population of young adults with autism in the faroe islands. J Autism Dev Disord 2014;44:2996–3005.
Humble MB, Gustafsson S, Bejerot S. Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) among psychiatric out-patients in Sweden: relations with season, age, ethnic origin and psychiatric diagnosis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2010;121:467–70.
Molloy CA, Kalkwarf HJ, Manning-Courtney P, Mills JL, Hediger ML. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration in children with autism spectrum disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol 2010;52:969–71.
Eyles DW, Smith S, Kinobe R, Hewison M, McGrath JJ. Distribution of the vitamin D receptor and 1 alpha-hydroxylase in human brain. J Chem Neuroanat 2005;29:21–30.
Reynolds E. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the nervous system. Lancet Neurol 2006;5:949–60.
Haapamäki J, Roine RP, Turunen U, Färkkilä MA, Arkkila PE. Increased risk for coronary heart disease, asthma, and connective tissue diseases in inflammatory bowel disease. J Crohns Colitis 2011;5:41–7.
Dogan M, Ariyuca S, Peker E, Akbayram S, Dogan SZ, et al. Psychotic disorder, hypertension and seizures associated with vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report. Hum Exp Toxicol 2012;31:410–3.
Dogan M, Ozdemir O, Sal EA, Dogan SZ, Ozdemir P, et al. Psychotic disorder and extrapyramidal symptoms associated with vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. J Trop Pediatr 2009;55:205–7.
Kałużna-Czaplińska J, Żurawicz E, Michalska M, Rynkowski J. A focus on homocysteine in autism. Acta Biochim Pol 2013;60:137–42.
Sawada S, Takada S, Yamamoto C. Excitatory actions of homocysteic acid on hippocampal neurons. Brain Res 1982;238:282–5.
Lee M, Strahlendorf HK, Strahlendorf JC. Differential effects of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and L-homocysteic acid on cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Brain Res 1988;456:104–12.
Chauhan A, Chauhan V. Oxidative stress in autism. Pathophysiology 2006;13:171–81.
Suh JH, Walsh WJ, McGinnis WR, Lewis A, Ames BN. Altered sulfur amino acid metabolism in immune cells of children diagnosed with autism. Am J Biochem Biotec 2008;4:105–13.
Reynolds A, Krebs NF, Stewart PA, Austin H, Johnson SL, et al. Iron status in children with autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics. 2012;130(Suppl 2):154–9.
Dosman CF, Brian JA, Drmic IE, Senthilselvan A, Harford MM, et al. Children with autism: effect of iron supplementation on sleep and ferritin. Pediatr Neurol 2007;36:152–8.
Youssef J, Singh K, Huntington N, Becker R, Kothare SV. Relationship of serum ferritin levels to sleep fragmentation and periodic limb movements of sleep on polysomnography in autism spectrum disorders. Pediatr Neurol 2013;49:274–8.
Millichap JG, Yee MM, Davidson SI. Serum ferritin in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatr Neurol 2006;34:200–3.
Donfrancesco R, Parisi P, Vanacore N, Martines F, Sargentini V, et al. Iron and ADHD: time to move beyond serum ferritin levels. J Atten Disord 2013;17:347–57.
Dorn LD, Kolko DJ, Susman EJ, Huang B, Stein H, et al. Salivary gonadal and adrenal hormone differences in boys and girls with and without disruptive behavior disorders: contextual variants. Biol Psychol 2009;81:31–9.
Brooks-Gunn J, Warren MP. Biological and social contributions to negative affect in young adolescent girls. Child Dev 1989;60:40–55.
El-Baz F, Hamza RT, Ayad MS, Mahmoud NH. Hyperandrogenemia in male autistic children and adolescents: relation to disease severity. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2014;26:79–84.
Genuis SJ, Lobo RA. Gluten sensitivity presenting as a neuropsychiatric disorder. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2014;2014:293206.
The Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism (JPEM) is the only international journal dedicated exclusively to endocrinology in the neonatal, pediatric and adolescent age groups, and publishes the results of clinical investigations in pediatric endocrinology and basic research. JPEM publishes Review Articles, Original Research, Case Reports, Short Communications and Letters to the Editor.