Hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome: a de novo mutation of the GLUD1 gene in twins and a review of the literature

Dorotea Ninkovićhttp://orcid.org/0000-0002-4239-519X 1 , Vladimir Sarnavka 2 , Anica Bašnec 3 , Mario Ćuk 2 , 4 , Danijela Petković Ramadža 2 , Ksenija Fumić 5 , Vesna Kušec 5 , René Santer 6 , and Ivo Barić 2 , 4
  • 1 Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Kišpatićeva 12, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, Phone: +38512367586, Fax: +38512376023
  • 2 Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
  • 3 Pediatric Polyclinic, Health Center Zagreb East, Zagreb, Croatia
  • 4 University of Zagreb, School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia
  • 5 Department of Laboratory Diagnostics, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
  • 6 Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
Dorotea NinkovićORCID iD: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4239-519X, Vladimir Sarnavka, Anica Bašnec, Mario Ćuk, Danijela Petković Ramadža, Ksenija Fumić, Vesna Kušec, René Santer and Ivo Barić

Abstract

Hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia (HI/HA) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by recurrent hypoglycemia and persistent mild elevation of plasma ammonia. HI/HA syndrome is one of the more common forms of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), caused by activating mutations within the GLUD1 gene that encodes the mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). We report here on monozygotic twin girls presented with fasting- and protein-induced hypoglycemia and mild persistent hyperammonemia. Genetic analysis revealed that both girls were heterozygous for a novel missense mutation within exon 11 [c.1499A>T, p.(R443W)] of the GLUD1 gene. Despite early treatment with diazoxide and a low protein diet, they both developed non-hypoglycemic seizures in early childhood followed by cognitive impairment. In addition to their clinical course, a review of the literature on HI/HA syndrome is provided.

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