To elucidate the effect of early growth patterns on the metabolic sensitivity to adiposity, we examined the relationship between the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and body mass index (BMI) levels at 12 years of age in 101 boys and 91 girls in a birth cohort. Children with an increase in BMI from the ages of 1.5 to 3 years exhibited a greater increase of HOMA-IR per BMI increase at 12 years of age compared to those with a decrease in BMI or stable BMI from 1.5 to 3 years. This suggests that children who show an increase in BMI from 1.5 to 3 years, a period normally characterized by a decreased or stable BMI, are more prone to developing insulin resistance at 12 years of age.
Sinaiko AR, Caprio S. Insulin resistance. J Pediatr 2012;161:11–5.
Prince RL, Kuk JL, Ambler KA, Dhaliwal J, Ball GD. Predictors of metabolically healthy obesity in children. Diabetes Care 2014;37:1462–8.
Nightingale CM, Rudnicka AR, Owen CG, Wells JC, Sattar N, et al. Influence of adiposity on insulin resistance and glycemia markers among U.K. Children of South Asian, black African-Caribbean, and white European origin: child heart and health study in England. Diabetes Care 2013;36:1712–9.
Gao H, Salim A, Lee J, Tai ES, van Dam RM. Can body fat distribution, adiponectin levels and inflammation explain differences in insulin resistance between ethnic Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians? Int J Obes (Lond) 2012;36:1086–93.
Fomon SJ, Haschke F, Ziegler EE, Nelson SE. Body composition of reference children from birth to age 10 years. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;35(Suppl 5):1169–75.
Veldhuis JD, Roemmich JN, Richmond EJ, Rogol AD, Lovejoy JC, et al. Endocrine control of body composition in infancy, childhood, and puberty. Endocr Rev 2005;26:114–46.
Toro-Ramos T, Paley C, Pi-Sunyer FX, Gallagher D. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years. Eur J Clin Nutr 2015;69:1279–89.
Levy JC, Matthews DR, Hermans MP. Correct homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) evaluation uses the computer program. Diabetes Care 1998;21:2191–2.
Keskin M, Kurtoglu S, Kendirci M, Atabek ME, Yazici C. Homeostasis model assessment is more reliable than the fasting glucose/insulin ratio and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index for assessing insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2005;115:e500–3.
Thorén A, Werner B, Lundholm C, Bråbäck L, Silfverdal SA. A rapid growth rate in early childhood is a risk factor for becoming overweight in late adolescence. Acta Paediatr 2015;104:1138–43.
Koyama S, Ichikawa G, Kojima M, Shimura N, Sairenchi T, et al. Adiposity rebound and the development of metabolic syndrome. Pediatrics 2014;133:e114–9.
Palmer BF, Clegg DJ. The sexual dimorphism of obesity. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2015;402:113–9.
Djiane J, Attig L. Role of leptin during perinatal metabolic programming and obesity. J Physiol Pharmacol 2008;59(Suppl 1):55–63.
Boeke CE, Mantzoros CS, Hughes MD, Rifas-Shiman SL, Villamor E, et al. Differential associations of leptin with adiposity across early childhood. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2013;21:1430–7.
Brito N, Fonseca M, Dinis I, Mirante A. Metabolic factors in obesity. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2010;23:97–100.
Koyama S, Sairenchi T, Shimura N, Arisaka O. Association between timing of adiposity rebound and body weight gain during infancy. J Pediatr 2015;166:309–12.
Perng W, Haji H, Berfolt MB, Rifas-Shiman SL, Kramer MS, et al. Birth size early life weight gain, and midchildhood cardiometabolic health. J Pediatr 2016;173:122–30.
Arisaka O, Ichikawa G, Koyama S, Sairenchi T. Increase in BMI from 1.5 to 3 years of age is a risk for cardiometabolic disease. Jacobs J Obes 2015;1:019.
The Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism (JPEM) is the only international journal dedicated exclusively to endocrinology in the neonatal, pediatric and adolescent age groups, and publishes the results of clinical investigations in pediatric endocrinology and basic research. JPEM publishes Review Articles, Original Research, Case Reports, Short Communications and Letters to the Editor.