An expectation-based metric for NFL field goal kickers

R. Drew Pasteur 1  and Kyle Cunningham-Rhoads 1
  • 1 Mathematics and Computer Science, College of Wooster, 311 Taylor Hall, 1189 Beall Ave., Wooster, OH 44691, USA
R. Drew Pasteur and Kyle Cunningham-Rhoads


The standard metric for American football field goal kickers is simply the percentage of attempts successfully converted. Due to variance in distance of attempts and other conditions (weather, altitude, defense, etc.), we argue that field goal percentage is an insufficient measure of kicker performance. Using three seasons of NFL data, we construct a multivariate logistic regression model for the success probability of a given attempt. This leads naturally to metrics in which a kicker’s performance is compared to model expectations, if a replacement-level player was attempting the same kicks. Player salaries correlate only weakly with our measures of field goal kicking success. We find that those kickers selected to the Pro Bowl and All-Pro teams were rather mediocre by our metrics, over the seasons studied. The relative difficulty of kicking in various stadiums is also considered. Finally, we discuss the degree to which field goal kicking is a skill that can be maintained over multiple seasons.

Purchase article
Get instant unlimited access to the article.
Log in
Already have access? Please log in.

Log in with your institution

Journal + Issues

JQAS, an official journal of the American Statistical Association, publishes research on the quantitative aspects of professional and collegiate sports. Articles deal with subjects as measurements of player performance, tournament structure, and the frequency and occurrence of records. Additionally, the journal serves as an outlet for professionals in the sports world to raise issues and ask questions that relate to quantitative sports analysis.