Solution to Fredholm integral inclusions via (F, δb)-contractions

Hemant Kumar Nashine 1 , 2 , Ravi P. Agarwal 1 , and Zoran Kadelburg 3
  • 1 Department of Mathematics, Texas A & M University - Kingsville - 78363-8202, Texas, USA
  • 2 Department of Mathematics, Amity School of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Chhattisgarh, Raipur - 493225, Chhattisgarh, India
  • 3 University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mathematics, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Beograd, Serbia
Hemant Kumar Nashine, Ravi P. Agarwal and Zoran Kadelburg

Abstract

We present sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions of Fredholm integral inclusion equations using new sort of contractions, named as multivalued almost F -contractions and multivalued almost F -contraction pairs under ı-distance, defined in b-metric spaces. We give its relevance to fixed point results in orbitally complete b-metric spaces. To rationalize the notions and outcome, we illustrate the appropriate examples.

1 Introduction

Integral equations appear in numerous scientific and engineering problems. A large class of initial and boundary value problems can be transformed to Volterra or Fredholm integral equations. Mathematical physics models, such as diffraction problems, scattering in quantum mechanics, conformal mapping, and water waves contributed to the creation of integral equations, as well. These equations represent a significant part of mathematical analysis and have various applications in real-world problems. Numerous studies have considered the integral inclusions that arise in the study of problems in applied mathematics, engineering and economics, since some mathematical models utilize multivalued maps instead of single-valued maps, see, e.g., [1-4] and references cited therein.

The advancement of geometric fixed point theory for multivalued mappings was initiated in the work of Nadler, Jr. in 1969 [5]. He used the concept of Hausdorff-Pompeiu metric to establish the multivalued contraction principle containing the Banach contraction principle as a special case. Since then, this discipline has been more developed, and many profound concepts and results have been set up in more generalized spaces.

We construct in this paper a new notion—almost F -contraction for multivalued mappings, by considering the ı-distance in the frame-work of b-metric spaces [6-8] and a concept of F -contractions which was introduced by Wardowski [9]. The paper is organized as follows. In Section 3, we introduce the notion of almost F-contraction for a multivalued mapping J under δ-distance in a b-metric space and originate fixed point results in orbitally complete b-metric spaces. In Section 4 we introduce the concept of almost F -contraction pair of multivalued mappings J2 and J1 under δ-distance. The existence and uniqueness of their common fixed point is obtained under additional assumptions on the mappings. We also furnish suitable examples to demonstrate the validity of our results and

to distinguish them from some known ones. In Section 5 we deal with solutions of a Fredholm integral inclusion equation, based on the results of Section 3.

Our work improves and extends the works done in the papers [10-13] with the consideration of orbitally complete b-metric space.

2 Preliminaries

The notion of b-metric space as an extension of metric space was introduced by Bakhtin in [6] and then extensively used by Czerwik in [7, 8, 14]. Since then, a lot of papers have been published on the fixed point theory of various classes of single-valued and multi-valued operators in this type of spaces. We recall here just some basic definitions and notation that we are going to use. ℝ+ and R0+ will denote the set of all positive, resp. nonnegative real numbers and ℕ will be the set of positive integers.

A b-metric on a nonempty set ε is a function E×ER0+ such that for a constant s ≥ 1 and all x, y, zε the following three conditions hold true:

(Ml) db(x,y) = 0 ⟺ x = y,

(M2) db(x,y) = db(y,x),

(M3) db(x,y)≤s(db(x,z)+ db(z,y)).

The triple (𝜀,db, s)is called a b-metric space.

Obviously, each metric space is a b-metric space (for s = 1), but the converse need not be true. Standard examples of b-metric spaces that are not metric spaces are the following:

1. 𝜀 = ℝ and db : 𝜀 ×𝜀 defined by db(x, y) = |x –y|2for all x, y ∈ 𝜀, with s = 2.

2. p(R):={{xn}R:n=1|xn|p<},0<p<1,db:p(R)×p(R)R given by
db({xn},{yn})=n=1|xnyn|p1/p
for all {xn}, {yn} 𝓁p(ℝ).Here s = 21/p. 3. Lp([0,1]) ϶ ƒ : [0,1] → ℝ such that 01|f(t)|pdt<,p>1,db:Lp([0,1])×Lp([0,1])R given by
db(f,g)=01|f(t)g(t)|p

forali f,gLp([0, l]);here s= 2p-1.

The topology on b-metric spaces and the notions of convergent and Cauchy sequences, as well as the completeness of the space are defined similarly as for standard metric spaces. However, one has to be aware of some differences. For instance, a b-metric need not be a continuous mapping in both variables (see, e.g., [15]).

Now, we give a brief background for multivalued mappings defined in a b-metric space (𝜀,db,s).

We denote the class of non-empty and bounded subsets of 𝜀 by 𝒫 b(𝜀) and the class of non-empty, closed and bounded subsets of 𝜀 by Pcb(E).ForU,V,WPb(E), we define:
Db(U,V)=inf{db(u,v):uU,vV}andδb(U,V)=sup{db(u,v):uU,vV}

with 𝒟b,(w,𝒲) = 𝒟b({w},𝒲) = inf{db(w,x): x𝒲}.

The following are some easy properties of 𝒟b and δb (see, e.g. [7, 8, 14]):

(i) if 𝒰 = {w}and 𝒱 = {v}then 𝒟b(𝒰,𝒱) = δb(𝒰,𝒱) = db(u,v);

(ii) 𝒟b(𝒰,𝒱)≤δb(𝒰,𝒱);

(iii) 𝒟b(x, 𝒱) ≤ db(x, b) for any b ∈𝒱;

(iv) δb(𝒰,𝒱)≤ s[δb(𝒰,𝒱) + δb(𝒲,𝒱)];

(v) δb(𝒰,𝒱) = 0 iff 𝒰 = 𝒱 = {υ}.

Moreover, we will always suppose that

(vi) the function 𝒟b is continuous in its variables.

Recall that z ∈ 𝜀 is called a fixed point of a multivalued mapping J:EPb(E) if z ∈ 𝒥z.

The concepts of orbit, orbitally complete space and orbitally continuous mapping given in [16-18] for metric spaces can be extended to the case of b-metric spaces, as follows:

Let (𝜀,db, s) be a b-metric space and J,J1,J2:EPb(E) be three mappings.

1. An orbit 𝒪(x0; 𝒥) of 𝒥 at a point x0𝜀 is any sequence {xn} such that xnJxn1 for n = 1,2,....

2. If for a point x0𝜀, there exists a sequence {xn} in 𝜀 such thatx2n+1J2x2n,x2n+2J1x2n+1,n=0,1,2,,then the set 𝒪(x0; 𝒥1, 𝒥2) = {xn : n = 1,2,...} is called an orbit of (𝒥1, 𝒥2) at x0.

3. The space (𝜀, db,s) is said to be (𝒥1, 𝒥2) -orbitally complete if any Cauchy subsequence {xni}of 𝒪(x0; 𝒥1,𝒥2) (for some x0 in 𝜀) converges in 𝜀. In particular, for 𝒥1= 𝒥2= 𝒥, we say that 𝜀 is 𝒥-orbitally complete.

4. The mapping 𝒥 is said to be orbitally continuous at a point x0𝜀 if for any sequence {xn }n≥0𝒪(x0; 𝒥) and z ∈𝜀, d(xn, z) 0 as n → implies δb(Jxn,Jz)0as n →. 𝒥 is called orbitally continuous in 𝜀 if it is orbitally continuous at every point of 𝜀.

5. The graph G (𝒥) of 𝒥 is defined as G (𝒥) = {(x,y): x ∈𝜀, y ∈𝒥x}. The graph G (𝒥) of 𝒥 is called 𝒥-orbitally closed if for any sequence {xn}, we have (x, x)G (𝒥) whenever (xn,xn+1)G (𝒥) and

limn→∞xn= x.

In his paper [9], Wardowski introduced a new type of contractions which he called F-contractions. Several authors proved various variants of fixed point results using such contractions. In particular, Acar and Altun proved in [10] a fixed point theorem for multivalued mappings under δ-distance.

Adapting Wardowski’s approach to b-metric space, Cosentino et al. used in [13] the set of functions 𝔉s defined as follows

Let s ≥ 1 be a real number. We denote by 𝔉s the family of all functions F : ℝ+ → ℝ with the

following properties:

(F1) F is strictly increasing;

(F2) for each sequencen} of positive numbers, limn→∞ αn = 0 if and only if limn→∞Fn) = —∞

(F3) for each sequencen} of positive numbers with limn→∞ αn = 0, there exists k ∈ (0, 1) such thatlimnαnkF(αn)=0;

(F4) there exists τ ∈ ℝ+ such that for each sequencen} of positive numbers, if τ + F(n)Fn-1) for all

n ∈ Ν, then τ+F(snαn)F(sn1αn1) for all n ∈ ℕ.

Let F : ℝ+ →ℝ be defined by F (α) = Inα or F (α) = α + In α. It can be easily checked [13, Example 3.2] that F satisfies the properties (F1)-(F4).

They proved the following (note that Hb here denotes the b-Hausdorff-Pompeiu metric).

[13, Theorem 3.4] Let (𝜀,db, s) be a complete b-metric space and let J:EPcb(E). Assume that there exists a continuous from the right function F ∈ 𝔉 and τ ∈+such that
2τ+F(sHb(Jx,Jy))F(db(x,y)),

for all x, y ∈𝜀, 𝒥x ≠ 𝒥y. Then 𝒥 has a fixed point.

3 Multivalued almost (F, δb)-contractions and relevance to fixed point results

We first introduce the notion of multivalued almost (F, δb)-contraction in a b-metric space and give relevance to fixed point results.

Let (𝜀, db, s) be a b-metric space with s > 1. We say that a multivalued mapping J:EPb(E) is a multivalued almost (F, δb)-contraction if F ∈ 𝔉s (with parameter τ) and there exists λ ≥ 0 such that
τ+F(sδb(Jx,Jy))<_F(Θ1(x,y)+λΘ2(x,y)),
for all x, y ∈𝜀 with min{δb,(𝒥x, 𝒥y), db (x, y)} > 0, where
Θ1(x,y)=maxdb(x,y),Db(x,Jx),Db(y,Jy),Db(x,Jy)+Db(y,Jx)2s
and
Θ2(x,y)=min{Db(x,Jx),Db(y,Jy),Db(x,Jy),Db(y,Jx)}.

If (2) is satisfied just for x,yO(x0;J)¯ (for some x0ε), we say that 𝒥 is a multivalued almost orbitally (F, δb)-contraction.

We are equipped now to state our first main result.

Let (ε, db, s) be a b-metric space with s > 1 and let J:EPb(E) be a multivalued almost orbitally (F, δb)-contraction. Suppose that (ε, db, s) is 𝒥-orbitally complete (for the same x0ε). If F is continuous and 𝒥x is closed for all x,yO(x0;J)¯, or 𝒥 has 𝒥-orbitally closed graph, then 𝒥 has a fixed point in ε.

Starting from the given point x0, choose a sequence {xn}in ε such that xn+1 ∈ 𝒥xn, for all n 0. Now, if xn0Jxn0for some n0, then the proof is finished. Therefore, we assume xn xn+1for all n ≥ 0. So

db(xn+1, xn+2) > 0 andδb(𝒥xn, 𝒥xn+1) > 0 for all n ≥ 0.

Using the condition (2) for elements x = xn, y = xn+1, for arbitrary n ≥ 0 we have
τ+F(sdb(xn+1,xn+2))τ+F(sδb(Jxn,Jxn+1))F(Θ1(xn,xn+1)+λΘ2(xn,xn+1))
where
Θ1(xn,xn+1)=maxdb(xn,xn+1),Db(xn,Jxn),Db(xn+1,Jxn+1),12s[Db(xn,Jxn+1)+Db(xn+1,Jxn)]maxdb(xn,xn+1),db(xn,xn+1),db(xn+1,xn+2),12sdb(xn,xn+2))=maxdb(xn,xn+1),db(xn+1,xn+2),12sdb(xn,xn+2)
and
Θ2(xn,xn+1)=min{Db(xn,Jxn),Db(xn+1,Jxn+1),Db(xn,Jxn+1),Db(xn+1,Jxn)}=0.
As 12sdb(xn,xn+2)max{db(xn,xn+1),db(xn+1,xn+2)},it follows that
τ+F(sdb(xn+1,xn+2))F(max{db(xn,xn+1),db(xn+1,xn+2)}).
Suppose that db(xn, xn+1)≤ db(xn+1, xn+2),for some positive integer n.Then from (4), we have
τ+F(sdb(xn+1,xn+2))F(db(xn+1,xn+2)),
a contradiction with (Fl). Hence,
max{db(xn,xn+1),db(xn+1,xn+2)}=db(xn,xn+1),
and consequently
τ+F(sdb(xn+1,xn+2))F(db(xn,xn+1))forallnN{0}.
It follows by (5) and the property (F4) that
τ+F(sndb(xn,xn+1))F(sn1db(xn1,xn))forallnN{0}.
Denote ϱn = d(xn, xn+1) for n = 0,1,2,.... Then, ϱn > 0 for all n and, using (6), the following holds:
F(snϱn)F(sn1ϱn1)τF(sn2ϱn2)2τF(ϱ0)nτ
for all n ∈ℕ. From (7), we get F(sn ϱn)→∞as n →∞. Thus, from (F2), we have
snϱn0asn.
Now, by the property (F3) there exists k ∈(0, 1) such that
limn(snϱn)kF(snϱn)=0.
By (7), the following holds for all n ∈ℕ:
(snϱn)kF(snϱn)(snϱn)kF(ϱ0)(snϱn)k(nτ)0.
Passing to the limit as n →∞in (10) and using (8) and (9), we obtain
limnn(snϱn)k=0
and hence limnn1/k sn ϱn = 0. Now, the last limit implies that the series n=1snϱn is convergent and hence {xn}is a Cauchy sequence in 𝒪(x0;𝒥). Since 𝜀is 𝒥-orbitally complete, there exists a z ∈ 𝜀 such that
xnZasn.

Suppose that 𝒥 z is closed.

We observe that if there exists an increasing sequence {nk}⊂ ℕ such that {nk}Nfor all k ∈ℕ,since 𝒥 z is closed and limkxnk=z, we deduce that z ∈ 𝒥 z and hence the proof is completed. Then we assume that there exists n0∈ℕ such that xn ∉𝒥 z for all n ∈ℕ with nn0. It follows that δb(𝒥xn,𝒥z) > 0 for all nn0. Using the condition (2) for x = xn, y = z, we have
τ+F(sDb(xn+1,Jz))τ+F(sδb(Jxn,Jz))F(Θ1(xn,z)+λΘ2(xn,z))
where
Θ1(xn,z)=maxdb(xn,z),Db(xn,Jxn),Db(z,Jz),Db(xn,Jz)+Db(z,Jxn)2smaxdb(xn,z),db(xn,xn+1),Db(z,Jz),Db(xn,Jz)+db(z,xn+1)2sDb(z,Jz),asn,
and
Θ1(xn,z)=minDb(xn,Jxn),Db(z,Jz),Db(xn,Jz),Db(z,Jxn)min{db(xn,xn+1),Db(z,Jz),Db(xn,Jz),db(z,xn+1)}0,asn.
Since F and Db are continuous, if Db(z, 𝒥 z) > 0, passing to the limit as n → ∞ in (11), we obtain
τ+F(sDb(z,Jz))<_F(Db(z,Jz)),

which is impossible since τ > 0, s ≥ 1 and F is strictly increasing. Hence, Db(z, 𝒥 z) = 0 and, since 𝒥 z is closed, we have z ∈ 𝒥 z. Thus, z is a fixed point of 𝒥.

Suppose that G(𝒥) is 𝒥-orbitally closed.

Since (xn,xn+1) ∈ G(𝒥) for all n ∈ ℕ ∪ {0} and limn → ∞xn = z, we have (z, z) ∈ G(𝒥) by the 𝒥-orbitally closedness. Hence, z ∈ 𝒥 z.

It is proved that z is a fixed point of 𝒥. D

The following corollaries follow from Theorem 3.2 by taking F(α) = In α, resp. F(α) = α + In α in (2).

Let (𝜀, db,s) be a b-metric space with s > 1 and let 𝒥: → 𝒫b (𝜀) be a multivalued mapping satisfying, for some τ > 0, x0, 𝜀 λ ≥ 0, thecondition
sδb(Jx,Jy)eτ{Θ1(x,y)+λΘ2(x,y)}

for all x, yx,yO(x0;J)¯with min{δ (𝒥x, 𝒥y), dp(x, y)} > 0, where Θ1, Θ2 are given by (3). Suppose that (ɛ, db, s) is 𝒥-orbitally complete (for the same x0ɛ). If 𝒥 x is closed for all x,yO(x0;J)¯ or 𝒥 has 𝒥-orbitally closed graph, then 𝒥 has a fixed point in ɛ.

Let (𝜀,db,s) be a b-metric space with s > 1 and let 𝒥: 𝜀 → Pb (𝜀) be a multivalued mapping satisfying, for some τ 0, x0 ∈ 𝜀, λ ≥ 0, the condition
sδb(Jx,Jy)Θ1(x,y)+λΘ2(x,y)esδb(Jx,Jy)(Θ1(x,y)+λΘ2(x,y))eτ

for all x,yO(x0;J)¯ with min{δb (𝒥 x, 𝒥 y), db(x, y)} > 0, where Θ1, Θ2are given by (3). Suppose that (ɛ, db, s) is 𝒥-orbitally complete (for the same x0ɛ). If 𝒥 x is closed for all x,yO(x0;J)¯ or 𝒥 has 𝒥-orbitally closed graph, then 𝒥 has a fixed point in 𝜀.

This example is inspired by [19, Example 2.3].

Let 𝜀 = [0, 1] be equipped with b-metric db(x, y) = (x — y)2 (with s = 2). Consider the mapping 𝒥 : 𝜀 → 𝒫cb(𝜀) given by
Jx={12},0x<1,[0,14],x=1.
If x, y ∈ [0, 1) then δb(𝒥x, 𝒥 y) = 0. Let x ∈ [0, 1) and y = 1. Then Jx={12},Jy=[0,14],δb(Jx,Jy)=14,
Θ1(x,y)=max{(1x)2,(12x)2,(34)2,14[D(x,Jy)+14]}916,Θ2(x,y)=min{(12x)2,(34)2,D(x,Jy),14]}0.
Take τ=116+ln98>0,F(α) = α + In α and λ ≥ 0. Then
τ+F(sδb(Jx,Jy))=116+ln98+214+ln214=916+ln916=F(916)F(Θ1(x,y)+λΘ2(x,y)).

Hence, the conditions of Theorem 3.2 (more precisely, Corollary 3.4) are fulfilled and 𝒥 has a fixed point (which is z=12).

However, in the case x ∈ [0, 1), y = 1, it is ,Hb(Jx,Jy)=14 and hence
sHb(Jx,Jy)=12<(1x)2=db(x,y)

for x<112. Thus, no number τ and function F 𝔉s exist such that the condition (1) is satisfied. So, Theorem2.4 cannot be used to obtain the desired conclusion.

The following corollary is a special case of Theorem 3.2 when 𝒥 is a single-valued mapping.

Let (𝜀, db, s) be a b-metric space with s > 1 and let 𝒥 : 𝜀 → 𝜀 be a self-mapping such that 𝜀 is 𝒥-orbitally complete (at some x0). Suppose that F ∈ 𝔉s and there exist τ > 0, λ ≥ 0 such that
τ+F(sdb(Jx,Jy))F(Θ1(x,y)+λΘ2(x,y)),
for all x,yO(x0;J)¯ with min{db (𝒥x, 𝒥y), db(x, y)} > 0, where
Θ1(x,y)=max{db(x,y),db(x,Jx),db(y,Jy),db(x,Jy)+db(y,Jx)2}
and
Θ2(x,y)=min{db(x,Jx),db(y,Jy),db(x,Jy),db(y,Jx)}.

If F is continuous, then 𝒥 has a fixed point in 𝜀.

4 Multivalued almost (F, δb)-contraction pair and relevance to common fixed point results

In this section, we prove a common fixed point theorem for a pair of multivalued mappings satisfying certain conditions.

First we introduce the notion of multivalued almost (F, δb)-contraction pair in b-metric spaces.

Let (𝜀, db, s) be a b-metric space with s > 1. Two multivalued mappings J1,J2:EPb(E) are said to form a multivalued almost (F, δb)-contraction pair, if F ∈ 𝔉sand there exist τ > 0, λ ≥ 0 such that
τ+F(sδb(J1x,J2y))FΔ1(x,y)+λΔ2(x,y)).
for all x, y ∈ 𝜀 with min{δb (𝒥1x, 𝒥2y), dp(x, y)} > 0 where
Δ1(x,y)=maxdb(x,y),Db(x,J1x),Db(y,J2y),12s[Db(x,J2y)+Db(y,J1x)]
Δ1(x,y)=max{db(x,y),Db(x,J1x),Db(y,J2y),12s[Db(x,J2y)+Db(y,J1x)]}
and
Δ2(x,y)=min{Db(x,J1X),Db(y,J2Y),Db(x,J2Y),Db(y,J1X)}.

If (13) is satisfied just for x,yO(x0;J1,J2)¯ (for some x0 ∈ 𝜀), we say that (𝒥1, 𝒥2) is a multivalued almost orbitally (F, δb)-contraction pair.

The main result of this section is the following theorem.

Let (𝜀, db, s) be a b-metric space with s > 1 and let J1,J2:EPb(E) form a multivalued almost orbitally (F, δb)-contraction pair (for some x0). Assume that 𝜀 is (𝒥1, 𝒥2)-orbitally complete at x0. If F is continuous and 𝒥1 and 𝒥2 are orbitally continuous at x0, then 𝒥1 and 𝒥2 have a common fixed point in 𝜀.

Starting with the given point x0, choose a sequence {xn} ⊂ 𝜀 satisfying
x2n+1J2x2n,x2n+2J1x2n+1,forn{0,1,}
and let an = db (xn, xn + 1)· If xn0J2xn0orxn0J1xn0 for some n0, then the proof is finished. So assume xnxn + 1 for all n ≥ 0. We claim that
limnsnan=0.
Suppose that n is an odd number. Substituting x = xn and y = xn+ 1 in (13), we obtain
τ+F(sdb(xn,xn+1))τ+F(sδb(J1xn,J2xn+1))FΔ1(xn,xn+1)+λΔ2(xn,xn+1)),
where
Δ(xn,xn+1)=maxdb(xn,xn+1),Db(xn,J1xn),Db(xn+1,J2xn+1),12sDb(xn,J2xn+1)+Db(xn+1,J1xn)max{db(xn,xn+1),db(xn,xn+1),db(xn+1,xn+2),12sdb(xn,xn+2)}max{db(xn,xn+1),db(xn+1,xn+2)}
as 12sδb(xn,xn+2)max{δb(xn,xn+1),db(xn+1,xn+2)} and
Δ(xn,xn+1)=min{Db(xn,J1Xn),Db(xn+1,J2Xn+1),Db(xn,J2Xn+1),Db(xn+1,J1Xn)}=0.
Therefore it follows from (14) that
τ+F(db(xn,xn+1))F(max{db(xn1,xn),db(xn,xn+1)}).
Suppose that db(xn-1, xn) ≤ db(xn, xn+1). Then from (15), we have
τ+F(sdb(xn,xn+1))F(db(xn,xn+1)),
a contradiction, which means that
max{db(xn,xn+1),db(xn+1,xn+2)}=db(xn,xn+1).
Consequently, τ + F(sdb(xn, xn+1)) ≤ F(db(xn-1, xn)),that is
τ+F(san)F(an1).

In a similar way, we can establish inequality (16) when n is an even number.

It follows by (16) and property (F4) that
τ+F(snan)F(sn1an1)for  allnN{0}.
Similarly as in Theorem 3.2, we can prove that the sequence {xn} is a b-Cauchy sequence in O(x0;J1,J2) Since 𝜀 is (𝒥1, 𝒥2)-multivalued orbitally complete at x0, there exists a z ∈ 𝜀 such that
xnZasn.

If 𝒥1 and 𝒥2 are orbitally continuous, then clearly 𝒥2z = 𝒥1z = z.

Consequences similar to Corollaries 3.3 and 3.4 can be formulated in an obvious way.

If in Theorem 4.2, 𝒥1 and 𝒥2 are single-valued mappings, we deduce the following result.

Let (𝜀, db, s) be α b-metric space with s > 1 and let 𝒥1, 𝒥2 :𝜀 → 𝜀 be self-mappings such that 𝜀 is (𝒥1, 𝒥2)-orbitally complete (at some x0). Suppose that F ∈ 𝔉s and there exist τ > 0, λ ≥ 0 such that
τ+F(sdb(J1x,J2y))FΔ1(x,y)+λΔ2(x,y)),
for all x,yO(x0;J1,J2)¯ (for the same x0) with min{db (𝒥x, 𝒥y), db(x, y)} > 0, where
Δ1(x,y)=max{db(x,y),db(x,J1x),db(y,J2y),db(x,J2y)+db(y,J1x)2s}
and
Δ(x,y)=min{db(x,J1x),db(y,J2y),db(x,J2y),db(y,J1x)}.

If F is continuous and 𝒥1 and 𝒥2 are (𝒥1, 𝒥2)-orbitally continuous at x0, then 𝒥1 and 𝒥2 have a common fixed point.

We illustrate the preceding result with the following example (inspired by [20, Example 2.10]).

Let the set 𝜀 = [0, +∞) be equipped with b-metric db(x, y) = (x — y)2 (s = 2) and define 𝒥1, 𝒥2 : 𝜀 → 𝜀 by
J1x=12x,0<_x12,x,x>12,J2x=13x,0x13,x,x>13.
Take x0=12.Then it is easy to show that
O(x0,J1,J2){12k3l:k,lN},O(x0,J1,J2)¯=O(x0,J1,J2){0}.
We will check that the contractive condition of Corollary 4.3 is ful filled for x, y ∈ 𝓞(x0 ; 𝒥1, 𝒥2) with τ=ln98and F(α) = In α. Indeed, it takes the form
2x2y3289max(xy)2,14x2,49y2,12xy32+yx22,
which, after the substitution y = tx, t ≥ 0 reduces to
21213t289max(1t)2,14,49t2,121t32+t122.

The last inequality can be easily checked by considering possible values of the parameter t > 0.

All other conditions are also fulfilled, and hence, by Corollary 4.3, we conclude that 𝒥1 and 𝒥2 have a common fixed point (which is z = 0).

4 Application to Fredholm integral inclusions

In this section we apply the obtained results to achieve the existence of solutions for a certain Fredholm-type integral inclusion. The application is inspired by [3, 21].

Consider the following integral inclusion of Fredholm type.
x(t)f(t)+abK(t,s,x(s))ds,t[a,b].

Here, ƒ ∈ C[a, b] is a given real function and K:[a,b]×[a,b]×RPcb(R) a given set-valued operator; x C [a, b] is the unknown function.

Now, for ρ ≥ 1, consider the b-metric db, on C [a, b] defined by
db(x,y)=(maxt[a,b]|x(t)y(t)|)p=maxt[a,b]|x(t)y(t)|p

for all x, y C[a,b]. Then (C[a, b], db, 2ρ–1) is a complete b-metric space. Let 𝓓b and δb, have the respective meanings.

We will assume the following:

(I) For each x ∈ C[a, b], the operator 𝒦x(t, s) := 𝒦,(t, s, x(s)), (t,s) ∈ [a,b] × [a, b] is continuous.

(II) there exists a continuous function Υ : [a, b]2 ∈ [0, +∞) such that
|ku(t,s)kv(t,s)|p
for all t, s ∈ [a, b], all u, ύ C[a, b] and all ku(t, s) ∈ 𝒦u(t, s), 𝒦v(t, s) ∈ 𝒦v(t, s), where λ > 0, p > 1; (III) there exists τ ∈ [1, +∞) such that
supt[a,b]abΥ(t,τ)dτeτ2p1.

Under the conditions (I)-(III), the integral inclusion (17) has a solution in C [a, b].

Let 𝜀 = C [a, b] (with b-metric db as defined in (18)) and consider the set-valued operator 𝒥 : 𝜀 → 𝒫cb (𝜀) defined by
Jx=yE:y(t)f(t)+abK(t,s,x(s))ds,t[a,b].

It is clear that the set of solutions of the integral inclusion (17) coincides with the set of fixed points of the operator 𝒥. Hence, we have to prove that under the given conditions, 𝒥 has at least one fixed point in 𝜀. For this, we shall check that the conditions of Theorem 3.2 hold true.

Let x ∈ 𝜀 be arbitrary. For the set-valued operator 𝒦x(t, s) : [a, b] × [a, b] → 𝒫cb (ℝ), it follows from the Michael's selection theorem that there exists a continuous operator kx : [a, b] x [a, b] → ℝ such that kx(t, s) ∈ 𝒦x(t, s) for each (t, s) ∈ [a, b] × [a,b]. It follows that f(t)+abkx(t,s)dsJx. Hence, 𝒥 x ≠ 0. Since ƒ and 𝒦x are continuous on [a, b], resp. [a, b]2, their ranges are bounded and hence 𝒥 x is bounded, i.e., 𝒦 : 𝜀 → 𝒫Cb (𝜀).

We will check that the contractive condition (2) holds for 𝒥 in 𝜀 with some τ > 0, λ ≥ 0 and F 𝔉s, i.e.,
τ+F(sδb(Jx1,Jx2))Fmaxdb(x1,x2),Db(x1,Jx1),Db(x2,Jx2),Db(x1,Jx2)+Db(x2,Jx1)2p+λmin{Db(x1,Jx1),Db(x2,Jx2),Db(x1,Jx2),Db(x2,Jx1)}
for elements x1, x2 ∈ 𝜀 Let y1 𝒥x1 be arbitrary, i.e.,
y1(t)f(t)+abK(t,s,x1(s))ds,t[a,b]

holds true. This means that for all t,s ∈ [a,b] there exists kx1(t,s)Kx1(t,s)=K(t,s,x1(s)) such that y1(t)=f(t)+abkx1(t,s)ds for t ∈ [a,b].

For all x1, x2 ∈ 𝜀, it follows from (II) that

It means that there exists z(t,s)Kx2(t,s) such that

for all t, s ∈ [a,b].

Denote by 𝒰(t, s) : [a, b] × [a, b] → 𝒫cb(∞) the operator defined by
U(t,s)=Kx2(t,s){uR:db(kx1(t,s),u))R(t,s)}.
Since, by (I), 𝒰 is lower semicontinuous, it follows that there exists a continuous operator kx2:[a,b]×[a,b]R such that kx2(t,s)U(t,s) for t ,s ∈ [a, b]. Theny2(t):=f(t)+abkx2(t,s)dsds satisfies that
y2(t)f(t)+abK(t,s,x2(s))ds,t[a,b],

i.e., y2 ∈ 𝒥 x2 and

for all t, s ∈ [a,b].

Thus, we obtain that
δb(Jx1,Jx2)eτ2p1maxdb(x1,x2),Db(x1,Jx1),Db(x2,Jx2),Db(x1,Jx2)+Db(x2,Jx1)2p+λmin{Db(x1,Jx1),Db(x2,Jx2),Db(x1,Jx2),Db(x2,Jx1)
(This shows again that the sets 𝒥 x1 and 𝒥 x2 are bounded.) By passing to logarithms, we write
lnsδbJx1,Jx2lneτmaxdb(x1,x2),Db(x1,Jx1),Db(x2,Jx2),Db(x1,Jx2)+Db(x2,Jx1)2p+λmin{Db(x1,Jx1),Db(x2,Jx2),Db(x1,Jx2),Db(x2,Jx1)

Taking the function F ∈ 𝔉s defined by F (α) = In α, we obtain that the condition (19) is fulfilled. Using Theorem 3.2, we conclude that the given integral inclusion has a solution.

Acknowledgement

We are indebted to the learned referee for his/her valuable comments that helped us to improve the text in several places.

The first author is thankful to the United State-India Education Foundation, New Delhi, India and IIE/CIES, Washington, DC, USA for Fullbright-Nehru PDF Award (No. 2052/FNPDR/2015).

The third author is thankful to Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Serbia, Grant No. 174002.

References

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    Dhage B. C, A functional integral inclusion involving Carathéodories, Electron. J. Qual. Theory Differ. Equ. 2003, 14, 1-18

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    O’Regan D., Integral inclusions of upper semi-continuous or lower semi-continuous type, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 1996, 124, 2391-2399

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    Sîntǎmǎrian A., Integral inclusions of Fredholm type relative to multivalued φ-contractions, Seminar Fixed Point Theory Cluj-Napoca 2002, 3, 361-368

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    Türkoǧlu D., Altun I., A fixed point theorem for multi-valued mappings and its applications to integral inclusions, App. Math. Lett. 2007, 20 563-570

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    Nadler Jr. S.B., Multivalued contraction mappings, Pacific J. Math. 1969, 30, 475-488

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    Bakhtin I.A., The contraction mapping principle in quasi metric spaces, Funct. Anal. Ulianowsk Gos. Ped. Inst. 1989, 30, 26-37

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    Czerwik S., Contraction mappings in b-metric spaces, Acta Math. Inform. Univ. Ostraviensis 1993, 5, 5-11

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    Czerwik S., Nonlinear set-valued contraction mappings in b-metric spaces, Atti Sem. Mat. Fis. Univ. Modena 1998, 46, 263-276

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    Wardowski D., Fixed points of a new type of contractive mappings in complete metric spaces, Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2012:94

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    Acar Ö., Altun I., A fixed point theorem for multivalued mappings with δ-distance, Abstract Appl. Anal. 2014, Article ID 497092, 1-5

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    Acar Ö., Durmaz G., Mmak G., Generalized multivalued F-contractions on complete metric spaces, Bull. Iranian Math. Soc. 2014,40, 1469-1478

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    Altun I., Minak G., Dag H., Multivalued F-contractions on complete metric space, J. Nonlinear Convex Anal. 2015, 16, 659-666

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    Cosentino M., Jleli M., Samet B., Vetro C., Solvability of integrodifferential problems via fixed point theory in b-metric spaces, Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2015:70

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    Czerwik S., Dlutek K., Singh S.L., Round-off stability of iteration procedures for set-valued operators in b-metric spaces, J. Natur.Phys. Sci. 2007, 11, 87-94

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    Nashine H.K., Kadelburg Z., Cyclic generalized ψ -contractions in b-metric spaces and an application to integral equations, Filomat 2014, 28, 2047-2057

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    Ćirić Lj.B., Fixed points for generalized multivalued contractions, Mat. Vesnik 1972, 9 (24), 265-272

  • [17]

    Khan M.S., Cho Y.J., Park W.T., Mumtaz T., Coincidence and common fixed points of hybrid contractions, J. Austral. Math. Soc.(Series A) 1993, 55, 369-385

  • [18]

    Rhoades B.E., Singh S.L., Kulshrestha C., Coincidence theorems for some multi-valued mappings, Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 1984, 7, 429-434

  • [19]

    Wardowski D., Van Dung N., Fixed points of F-weak contractions on complete metric spaces, Demonstratio Math. 2014, 47, 146-155

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    Nashine, H.K., Kadelburg Z., GoluboviĆ Z., Common fixed point results using generalized altering distances on orbitally complete ordered metric spaces, J. Appl. Math. 2012, Article ID 382094, 1-13

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    Roshan J.R., Parvaneh V., Kadelburg Z., Common fixed point theorems for weakly isotone increasing mappings in ordered b-metric spaces, J. Nonlinear Sci. Appl. 2014, 7, 229-245

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1]

    Dhage B. C, A functional integral inclusion involving Carathéodories, Electron. J. Qual. Theory Differ. Equ. 2003, 14, 1-18

  • [2]

    O’Regan D., Integral inclusions of upper semi-continuous or lower semi-continuous type, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 1996, 124, 2391-2399

  • [3]

    Sîntǎmǎrian A., Integral inclusions of Fredholm type relative to multivalued φ-contractions, Seminar Fixed Point Theory Cluj-Napoca 2002, 3, 361-368

  • [4]

    Türkoǧlu D., Altun I., A fixed point theorem for multi-valued mappings and its applications to integral inclusions, App. Math. Lett. 2007, 20 563-570

  • [5]

    Nadler Jr. S.B., Multivalued contraction mappings, Pacific J. Math. 1969, 30, 475-488

  • [6]

    Bakhtin I.A., The contraction mapping principle in quasi metric spaces, Funct. Anal. Ulianowsk Gos. Ped. Inst. 1989, 30, 26-37

  • [7]

    Czerwik S., Contraction mappings in b-metric spaces, Acta Math. Inform. Univ. Ostraviensis 1993, 5, 5-11

  • [8]

    Czerwik S., Nonlinear set-valued contraction mappings in b-metric spaces, Atti Sem. Mat. Fis. Univ. Modena 1998, 46, 263-276

  • [9]

    Wardowski D., Fixed points of a new type of contractive mappings in complete metric spaces, Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2012:94

  • [10]

    Acar Ö., Altun I., A fixed point theorem for multivalued mappings with δ-distance, Abstract Appl. Anal. 2014, Article ID 497092, 1-5

  • [11]

    Acar Ö., Durmaz G., Mmak G., Generalized multivalued F-contractions on complete metric spaces, Bull. Iranian Math. Soc. 2014,40, 1469-1478

  • [12]

    Altun I., Minak G., Dag H., Multivalued F-contractions on complete metric space, J. Nonlinear Convex Anal. 2015, 16, 659-666

  • [13]

    Cosentino M., Jleli M., Samet B., Vetro C., Solvability of integrodifferential problems via fixed point theory in b-metric spaces, Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2015:70

  • [14]

    Czerwik S., Dlutek K., Singh S.L., Round-off stability of iteration procedures for set-valued operators in b-metric spaces, J. Natur.Phys. Sci. 2007, 11, 87-94

  • [15]

    Nashine H.K., Kadelburg Z., Cyclic generalized ψ -contractions in b-metric spaces and an application to integral equations, Filomat 2014, 28, 2047-2057

  • [16]

    Ćirić Lj.B., Fixed points for generalized multivalued contractions, Mat. Vesnik 1972, 9 (24), 265-272

  • [17]

    Khan M.S., Cho Y.J., Park W.T., Mumtaz T., Coincidence and common fixed points of hybrid contractions, J. Austral. Math. Soc.(Series A) 1993, 55, 369-385

  • [18]

    Rhoades B.E., Singh S.L., Kulshrestha C., Coincidence theorems for some multi-valued mappings, Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 1984, 7, 429-434

  • [19]

    Wardowski D., Van Dung N., Fixed points of F-weak contractions on complete metric spaces, Demonstratio Math. 2014, 47, 146-155

  • [20]

    Nashine, H.K., Kadelburg Z., GoluboviĆ Z., Common fixed point results using generalized altering distances on orbitally complete ordered metric spaces, J. Appl. Math. 2012, Article ID 382094, 1-13

  • [21]

    Roshan J.R., Parvaneh V., Kadelburg Z., Common fixed point theorems for weakly isotone increasing mappings in ordered b-metric spaces, J. Nonlinear Sci. Appl. 2014, 7, 229-245

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