South–South Cooperation and IBSA: More Trade in Politics

Adriana Schor 1
  • 1 Instituto de Relações Internacionais, Universidade de São Paulo, Av Lucio Martins Rodrigues s/n Travessas 4 e 5, São Paulo 05508-020, Brazil
Adriana Schor

Abstract

There is a consensus in the literature that India–Brazil–South Africa (IBSA) Forum is not about trade. The main argument is that the three economies do not have enough complementarities to foster trade and that their cooperation in trade issues is undermined by competition for developed countries’ markets access. This report shows that this argument does not hold. Not only there are potential gains from trade among India, Brazil and South Africa, but also their exports are not sufficient similar to affirm that they are essentially rivals concerning market access. Moreover, it discusses the potential political gains that an increased trade among IBSA members can bring about. More trade can increase cooperation in multilateral negotiations and helps to sustain the coalition of developing countries.

  • Alden, C., and M. A. Vieira. 2005. “The New Diplomacy of the South: South Africa, Brazil, India and Trilateralism.” Third World Quarterly 26(7):107795.

    • Crossref
    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Areias, A. C. 2010. Os Limites da Cooperação: O Brasil e o G-20 nas negociações agrícolas da Organização Mundial de Comércio. Dissertação de Mestrado em Relações Internacionais, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro.

  • Baier, S. L., and J. H. Bergstrand. 2001. “The Growth of World Trade: Tariffs, Transport Costs, and Income Similarity.” Journal of International Economics 53(1):127.

    • Crossref
    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brulhart, M. 2008. “An Account of Global Intraindustry Trade, 1962–2006”. Background Paper, World Development Report 2009, UNCTAD.

    • Export Citation
  • Celli, U., M. Salles, D. Tussie, and J. Peixoto. 2010. “Mercosur in South-South Agreements: In the Middle of Two Models of Regionalism.” UNCTAD Virtual Institute.

    • Export Citation
  • De, P. 2005. “Trade in IBSA Economic Cooperation: The Role of Transportation Linkages.” RIS Discussion Papers.

    • Export Citation
  • Dupas, G. 2006. “South Africa, Brazil and India: Divergence, Convergence and Alliance Perspectives”. In India, Brazil and South Africa: Perspectives and Alliances, edited by Fábio Villares. São Paulo: Editora UNESP.

    • Export Citation
  • Flemes, D. 2007. “Emerging Middle Powers’ Soft Balancing Strategy: State and Perspectives of the IBSA Dialogue Forum.” GIGA Working Paper.

    • Export Citation
  • Flemes, D. 2009. “India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) in the New Global Order: Interests, Strategies and Values of the Emerging Coalition.” International Studies 46(4):40121.

    • Crossref
    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Higgot, R., and A. Cooper. 1990. “Middle Power Leadership and Coalition Building: Australia, the Cairns Group and the Uruguay Round of Trade Negotiations.” International Organization 44(4):589632.

    • Crossref
    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hurrell, A., and A. Narlikar. 2005. “A New Politics of Confrontation? Developing Countries at Cancun and Beyond.” Mimeograph.

    • Export Citation
  • Jonsson, G., and A. Subramanian. 2001. “Dynamic Gains from Trade: Evidence from South Africa.” IMF Staff Paper 48(1):197224.

    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kahler, M., and J. Oddell. 1989. “Developing Country Coalition-Building and International Trade Negotiations.” In Developing Countries and the Global Trading System, edited by John Whalley. Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan University Press.

    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krajewski, M. 2000. “From Green Room to Glass Room: Participation of Developing Countries and Internal Transparency in the WTO Decision Making Process”. A TradeWatch Paper.

    • Export Citation
  • Krishna, P., and D. Mitra. 1998. “Trade Liberalization, Market Discipline and Productivity Growth: New Evidence from India.” Journal of Development Economics 56(2):44762.

    • Crossref
    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krugman, P., and M. Obstfeld. 2010. Economia Internacional. São Paulo: Prentice-Hall.

  • Kume, H., G. Piani, and P. Miranda. 2005. “Índia-Mercosul: Perspectivas De Um Acordo De Preferências Comerciais.” Texto de discussão no. 1120, IPEA.

    • Export Citation
  • de Lima, M. R. S. 2005. “A Política Externa Brasileira e os Desafios da Cooperação Sul-Sul.” Revista Brasileira De Política Internacional 48(1):2459.

    • Crossref
    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lima, M. 2010. “Brasil e Polos Emergentes do Poder Mundial: Rússia, Índia, China e África do Sul.” In O Brasil e os Demais BRICS: Comércio e Política, edited by R. Baumann. CEPAL, Escritório do Brasil/IPEA.

    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mancuso, W. P. 2007. “O Empresariado Como Ator Político no Brasil: Balanço da Literatura e Agenda de Pesquisa.” Revista de Sociologia E Política 28:13146.

    • Crossref
    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mancuso, W. P., and A. J. de Oliveira. 2006. “Abertura Econômica e Ação Coletiva do Empresariado no Brasil.” Lua Nova Revista de Cultura e Política 69:14772.

    • Crossref
    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mikic, M., and J. Gilbert. 2009. Trade Statistics in Policy Making: A Handbook of Commonly Used Trade Indices and Indicators. New York: United Nations.

    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Narlikar, A. 2003. International Trade and Developing Countries: Bargaining Coalitions in the GATT & WTO. London: Routledge.

    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Narlikar, A., and D. Tussie. 2004. “The G20 at the Cancun Ministerial: Developing Countries and Their Evolving Coalitions in the WTO.” World Economy 27(7):94766.

    • Crossref
    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Odell, J., and A. Ortiz Mena. 2004. “How to Negotiate Over Trade: A Summary of New Research for Developing Countries.” University of Southern California.

    • Export Citation
  • Oliveira, A., J. Onuki, and E. N. Oliveira. 2006. “Coalizões Sul-Sul e Multilateralismo: Índia, Brasil e África do Sul.” Contexto Internacional 28(2):465504.

    • Crossref
    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Onuki, J., and A. Oliveira. 2012. “New Role of Brazil in the Global Governance.” Paper presented at 2012 ISA World Forum.

    • Export Citation
  • Quereshi, A. H. 2003. “Participation of Developing Countries in the WTO Dispute Settlement System.” Journal of African Law 47(2):17498.

    • Crossref
    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schor, A. 2004. “Heterogeneous Productivity Response to Tariff Reduction. Evidence from Brazilian Manufacturing Firms.” Journal of Development Economics 75:37396.

    • Crossref
    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tussie, D. 1987. The Less Developed Countries and the World Trading System: A Challenge to the GATT. London: Frances Pinter.

    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Valls Pereira, L. 2006. “Os Acordos Comerciais Sul-Sul Firmados Pelo Mercosul: Uma Avaliação Sob a Ótica Brasileira.” Revista Brasileira de Comércio Exterior 86:211.

    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vieira, M., and C. Alden. 2011. “India, Brazil, and South Africa (IBSA): South-South Cooperation and the Paradox of Regional Leadership.” Global Governance 17:50728.

    • Crossref
    • Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Purchase article
Get instant unlimited access to the article.
$42.00
Log in
Already have access? Please log in.


Journal + Issues

New Global Studies approaches contemporary globalization as a whole and across disciplinary lines. It draws from history, sociology, anthropology, political science and international relations to study the past and present of today's globalizing process. Topics include economic globalization, global media networks, preservation of the global environment, transnational manifestations of culture and the methodology of global studies itself.

Search