Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) is an efficient
method for generating speckle-free contiguous optical distributions.
It has been used in applications such as optical
manipulation, microscopy, optical cryptography and
more contemporary biological applications such as twophoton
optogenetics or neurophotonics.Among its diverse
applications, simple efficient shapes for illumination or
excitation happen to have the biggest potential use beyond
the research experiments. Hence, we preset recent
GPC developments geared towards these applications.We
start by presenting the theory needed for designing an optimized
GPC light shaper (GPC LS). A compact GPC LS implementation
based on this design is then used to demonstrate
the GPC LS’s benefits on typical applications where
lasers have to be shaped into a particular pattern. Both
simulations and experiments show ~80% efficiency, ~3x
intensity gain and ~90% energy savings. As an application
example,we show how computer generated hologram
reconstruction can be up to three times brighter or how
the number of optical spots can be multiplied threefold
while maintaining the brightness. Finally, to demonstrate
its potential for biomedical multispectral applications, we
demonstrate efficient light shaping of a supercontinuum
laser over the visible wavelength range.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
 D. Palima, A. R. Banas, G. Vizsnyiczai, L. Kelemen, P. Ormos, and
J. Glückstad, "Wave-guided optical waveguides," Opt. Express
20, 2004–14 (2012).
 E. Papagiakoumou, F. Anselmi, A. Bcgue, V. de Sars, J. Glückstad,
E. Y. Isacoff, and V. Emiliani, "Scanless two-photon excitation
of channelrhodopsin-2," Nat. Methods 7, 848–854 (2010).
 J. G. Lee, B. J. McIlvain, C. J. Lobb, andW. T. Hill, "Analogs of basic
electronic circuit elements in a free-space atom chip.," Sci. Rep.
3, 1034 (2013).
 E. Papagiakoumou, "Optical developments for optogenetics.,"
Biol. Cell 105, 443–64 (2013).
 D. Palima, C. A. Alonzo, P. J. Rodrigo, and J. Glückstad, "Generalized
phase contrast matched to Gaussian illumination," Opt.
Express 15, 11971–7 (2007).
 A. Banas, D. Palima, M. Villangca, T. Aabo, and J. Glückstad,
"GPC light shaper for speckle-free one- and two- photon contiguous
pattern excitation," Opt. Express 7102, 5299–5310
 T. R. M. Sales, R. P. C. Photonics, C. Road, and R. Ny, "Structured
Microlens Arrays for Beam Shaping," in Proc. of SPIE (2003),
Vol. 5175, pp. 109–120.
 C. Kopp, L. Ravel, and P. Meyrueis, "Efficient beamshaper homogenizer
design combining diffractive optical elements, microlens
array and random phase plate," J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt.
1, 398–403 (1999).
 J. A. Hoffnagle and C. M. Jefferson, "Design and performance of
a refractive optical system that converts a Gaussian to a flattop
beam.," Appl. Opt. 39, 5488–99 (2000).
 S. K. Case, P. R. Haugen, and O. J. Lrkberg, "Multifacet holographic
optical elements forwave front transformations.," Appl.
Opt. 20, 2670–5 (1981).
 I. Gur and D. Mendlovic, "Diffraction limited domain flat-top
generator," 237–248 (1998).
 W. B. Veldkamp, "Laser beam profile shaping with interlaced binary
diffraction gratings.," Appl. Opt. 21, 3209–12 (1982).
 M. R. Wang, "Analysis and optimization on single-zone binary
flat-top beam shaper," Opt. Eng. 42, 3106 (2003).
 R. Voelkel and K. J. Weible, "Laser beam homogenizing: limitations
and constraints," in Proc. of SPIE, A. Duparré and R. Geyl,
eds. (2008), Vol. 7102, p. 71020J–71020J–12.
 A. Banas, O. Kopylov, M. Villangca, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad,
"GPC light shaper: static and dynamic experimental demonstrations,"
Opt. Express (2014).
 J. Glückstad and P. C. Mogensen, "Optimal phase contrast in
common-path interferometry.," Appl. Opt. 40, 268–82 (2001).
 S. Tauro, A. Banas, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, "Experimental
demonstration of Generalized Phase Contrast based Gaussian
beam-shaper," Opt. Express 19, 7106–11 (2011).
 D. Palima and J. Glückstad, "Multi-wavelength spatial light
shaping using generalized phase contrast," Opt. Express 16,
 O. Kopylov, A. Banas, M. Villangca, and D. Palima, "GPC light
shaping a supercontinuum source," 23, 1894–1905 (2015).
 A. W. Lohmann and D. P. Paris, "Binary fraunhofer holograms,
generated by computer.," Appl. Opt. 6, 1739–48 (1967).
 W. H. Lee, "Sampled fourier transform hologram generated by
computer," Appl. Opt. 9, 639–43 (1970).
 J. Glückstad and D. Z. Palima, Generalized Phase Contrast: Applications
in Optics and Photonics (Springer Series in Optical
 D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424,
 M. A. Go, C. Stricker, S. Redman, H.-A. Bachor, and V. R. Daria,
"Simultaneous multi-site two-photon photostimulation in three
dimensions.," J. Biophotonics 5, 745–53 (2012).
 L. Ge, M. Duelli, and R. Cohn, "Enumeration of illumination and
scanning modes from real-time spatial light modulators.," Opt.
Express 7, 403–16 (2000).
 T. Matsuoka, M. Nishi, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, K. Hirao, D. Palima,
S. Tauro, A. Banas, and J. Glückstad, "Functionalized 2PP
structures for the BioPhotonics Workstation," in Proceedings of
SPIE, D. L. Andrews, E. J. Galvez, and J. Glückstad, eds. (2011),
Vol. 7950, p. 79500Q.
 P. J. Rodrigo, L. Gammelgaard, P. Brggild, I. Perch-Nielsen, and
J. Glückstad, "Actuation of microfabricated tools using multiple
GPC-based counterpropagating-beam traps.," Opt. Express 13,
 Y. Tanaka, S. Tsutsui, M. Ishikawa, and H. Kitajima, "Hybrid optical
tweezers for dynamic micro-bead arrays.," Opt. Express 19,
 S. Tauro, A. Banas, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, "Dynamic axial
stabilization of counter-propagating beam-traps with feedback
control," Opt. Express 18, 18217–22 (2010).
 P. J. Rodrigo, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, "Real-time threedimensional
optical micromanipulation of multiple particles
and living cells.," Opt. Lett. 29, 2270–2 (2004).
 J. Glückstad, L. Lading, H. Toyoda, and T. Hara, "Lossless light
projection.," Opt. Lett. 22, 1373–5 (1997).
 V. Nourrit, J.-L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, and P. Chanclou,
"Propagation and diffraction of truncated Gaussian beams," J.
Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 546 (2001).
 R.W. Gerchberg andW. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the
determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane
pictures," Optik (Stuttg). 35, 237–246 (1972).
 A. Banas, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad, "Matched-filtering generalized
phase contrast using LCoS pico-projectors for beamforming.,"
Opt. Express 20, 9705–12 (2012).
 J. Glückstad and P. C. Mogensen, "Reconfigurable ternary-phase
array illuminator based on the generalised phase contrast
method," 169–175 (2000).
 F. Kenny, F. S. Choi, J. Glückstad, and M. J. Booth, "Adaptive optimisation
of a generalised phase contrast beam shaping system,"
Opt. Commun. 342, 109–114 (2015).
 R. Porras-Aguilar, K. Falaggis, J. C. Ramirez-San-Juan, and R.
Ramos-Garcia, "Self-calibrating common-path interferometry,"
Opt. Express 23, 3327 (2015).
 V. Daria, J. Glückstad, P. C. Mogensen, R. L. Eriksen, and
S. Sinzinger, "Implementing the generalized phase-contrast
method in a planar-integrated micro-optics platform.," Opt.
Lett. 27, 945–7 (2002).
 D. Palima and J. Glückstad, "Gaussian to uniform intensity
shaper based on generalized phase contrast," Opt. Express 16,
 M. Villangca, A. Banas, O. Kopylov, D. Palima, and J. Glückstad,
"Optimal illumination of phase-only diffractive element using
GPC light shaper," in Proc. of SPIE (2015), pp. 9379–24.
 E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning,
a J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, and B. J.
Tromberg, "Spectroscopy enhances the information content of
optical mammography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
 Y. Y. Cheng and J. C.Wyant,"Multiple-wavelength phase-shifting
interferometry," Appl. Opt. 24, 804 (1985).
 E. L. Heffer and S. Fantini, "Quantitative oximetry of breast tumors:
a near-infrared method that identifies two optimal wavelengths
for each tumor," Appl. Opt. 41, 3827–3839 (2002).
 Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P.
Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical
switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer
composites at 1.55 μm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
The open access and peer-reviewed journal publishes most recent research articles and technological reviews on subjects related to optical information. The overall scope is to cover all aspects of this matter: phenomena, materials, methods and devices. The integration of optics with information technologies is considered as well so that the journal covers also processing of optically acquired data and images.