Agriculture for Space: People and Places Paving the Way

Raymond M. Wheeler 1
  • 1 Kennedy Space Center, Florida, United States of America

Abstract

Agricultural systems for space have been discussed since the works of Tsiolkovsky in the early 20th century. Central to the concept is the use of photosynthetic organisms and light to generate oxygen and food. Research in the area started in 1950s and 60s through the works of Jack Myers and others, who studied algae for O2 production and CO2 removal for the US Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Studies on algal production and controlled environment agriculture were also carried out by Russian researchers in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia beginning in 1960s including tests with human crews whose air, water, and much of their food were provided by wheat and other crops. NASA initiated its Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) Program ca. 1980 with testing focused on controlled environment production of wheat, soybean, potato, lettuce, and sweetpotato. Findings from these studies were then used to conduct tests in a 20 m2, atmospherically closed chamber located at Kennedy Space Center. Related tests with humans and crops were conducted at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in the 1990s. About this same time, Japanese researchers developed a Controlled Ecological Experiment Facility (CEEF) in Aomori Prefecture to conduct closed system studies with plants, humans, animals, and waste recycling systems. CEEF had 150 m2 of plant growth area, which provided a near-complete diet along with air and water regeneration for two humans and two goats. The European Space Agency MELiSSA Project began in the late 1980s and pursued ecological approaches for providing gas, water and materials recycling for space life support, and later expanded to include plant testing. A Canadian research team at the University of Guelph developed a research facility ca. 1994 for space crop research. The Canadian team eventually developed sophisticated canopy-scale hypobaric plant production chambers ca. 2000 for testing crops for space, and have since expanded their testing for a wide range of controlled environment agriculture topics. Most recently, a group at Beihang University in Beijing designed, built and tested a closed life support facility (Lunar Palace 1), which included a 69-m2 agricultural module for air, water, and food production for three humans. As a result of these studies for space agriculture, novel technologies and findings have been produced; this includes the first use of light emitting diodes for growing crops, one of the first demonstrations of vertical agriculture, use of hydroponic approaches for subterranean crops like potato and sweetpotato, crop yields that surpassed reported record field yields, the ability to quantify volatile organic compound production (e.g., ethylene) from whole crop stands, innovative approaches for controlling water delivery, approaches for processing and recycling wastes back to crop production systems, and more. The theme of agriculture for space has contributed to, and benefited from terrestrial, controlled environment agriculture and will continue to do so into the future.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Alling, A., M. Van Thillo, W. Dempster, M. Nelson, S. Silverstone, and J. Allen. 2005. Lessons learned from Biosphere 2 and laboratory biosphere closed systems experiment for the Mars on Earth project. Biological Sci. in Space, 19(4), 250-260

  • Andre, M., F. Cote, A. Gerbaud, D. Massimino, J. Massimino, and C. Richaud. 1989. Effect of CO2 and O2 on development and fructification of wheat in closed systems. Adv. Space Res., 9(8), 17-28

  • Andre, M. and D. Massimino. 1992. Growth of plants at reduced pressures: Experiments in wheat-technological advantages and constraints. Adv. Space Res., 12(5), 97-106

  • Avercheva, O., Yu,A. Berkovich, S. Smolyanina, E. Bassarskaya, S. Pogosyan, V. Ptushenko, A. Erokhin, T. Zhigalova. 2014. Biochemical, photosynthetic and productive parameters of Chinese cabbage grown under blue-red LED assembly designed for space agriculture. Adv. Space Res., 53, 1574-1581

  • Ashida, A and K. Nitta. 1995. Construction of CEEF (Closed Ecology experiment Facility) is just started. SAE Tech., Paper 951584

  • Averner, M., M. Karel, and R. Radmer. 1984. Problems associated with using algae in bioregenerative life support systems. NASA Contractor Report 166615, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA

  • Bamsey, M. T. Graham, M. Stasiak, A. Berinstain, A. Scott, and T. Rondeau Vuk, and M. Dixon. 2009. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions. Advances in Space Research, 44, 151-161

  • Bamsey, M., Graham, T., Thompson, C., Bertinstain, A., Scott, A., M. Dixon, University of Guelph, Canada. 2012. Ion-Specific nutrient management in closed systems: the necessity for ion-selective sensors in terrestrial and space-based agriculture and water management systems. Sensors, 12(10), 13349-13391

  • Barnes, C. and B. Bugbee. 1992. Morphological responses of wheat to blue light. J. Plant Physiol., 139,339-342

  • Barta, D.J. and T.W. Tibbitts. 1991. Calcium localization in lettuce leaves with and without tipburn: Comparison of controlled environment and field grown plants. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 116, 870-875

  • Barta, D.J., T.W. Tibbitts, R.J. Bula, and R.C. Morrow. 1992. Evaluation of light emitting diodes characteristics for a space-based plant irradiation source. Adv. Space Res., 12(5), 141-149

  • Barta, D.J. and K. Henderson. 1998. Performance of wheat for air revitalization and food production during the Lunar-Mars life support test project phase III test. SAE Technical Paper, Series 98104

  • Barta, D.J., J.M. Castillo, and R.E. Fortson. 1999. The biomass production system for the bioregenerative planetary life support systems test complex: Preliminary designs and considerations. SAE Technical Paper, 1999-01-2188

  • Barta, D.J., J.M. Castillo, and R.E. Fortson. 1999. The biomass production system for the bioregenerative planetary life support systems test complex: Preliminary designs and considerations. SAE Technical, Paper 1999-01-2188

  • Batten, J.H., G.W. Stutte, and R.M. Wheeler 1995. Effect of crop development on biogenic emissions from plant populations grown in a closed plant growth chambers. Phytochem., 39, 1351-1357

  • Berkovich, Yu. A., N M. Krivobok, and Yu. E. Sinyak. 1998. Project of conveyer-type space greenhouse for cosmonauts’ supply with vitamin greenery. Adv. Space Res., 22(10), 1401-1405

  • Berkovich, Yu.A., N.M. Krivobok, Yu.Ye. Sinyak, S.O. Smolyanina, Yu.I. Grigoriev, S.Yu. Romanov and A.S. Guissenberg. 2004. Developing a vitamin greenhouse for the life support system of the International Space Station and for future interplanetary missions. Advances in Space Research, 34(7),1552-1557

  • Berkovich, Yu. A., S.O. Smolyanina, N.M. Krivobok, A.N. Erokhin, A.N. Agureev, and N.A. Shanturin. 2009. Vegetable production facility as a part of a closed life support system in a Russian Martian space flight scenario. Adv. Space Res., 44, 170-176

  • Bingham, G., F. Salisbury, W. Campbell, J. Carman, B.Y. Yendler, V. S. Sytchev, Y. B. Berkovich, M. A. Levinskikh and I. Podolsky. 1996. The spacelab-Mir-1 “Greenhouse-2” experiment. Adv. Space Res., 18, 225-232

  • Bingham, G.E., Levinskikh, M.A., Sytchev V.N., and I.G. Podolsky. 2000. Effects of gravity on plant growth. J. Grav. Physiol., 7, 5-8

  • Bingham, G.E., T.S. Topham, A. Taylor, I.G. Podolshy, M.A. Levinskikh, and V.N. Sychev. 2003. Lada: ISS plant growth technology checkout. SAE Technical Paper, 2003-01-2613

  • Bonsi, C.K., D.G. Mortley, P.A. Loretan, and W.A. Hill. 1994. Temperature and light effects of sweetpotatoes grown hydroponically. Acta Hort., 361, 527-529

  • Brown, C.S., T.W. Tibbitts, J.G. Croxdale, and R.M. Wheeler. 1997. Potato tuber formation in the spaceflight environment. J. Life Support and Biosphere Sci., 4, 71-76

  • Boeing Comp. 1962. Investigations of selected higher plants as gas exchange mechanism for closed ecological systems. In: Biologistics for Space Systems Symposium, May 1962. AMRL-TDR-62-116, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, USA Bonsi, C.K., P.A. Loretan, W.A. Hill, and D.G. Mortley. 1992. Response of sweetpotatoes to continuous light. HortSci., 27, 471

  • Bubgee, B.G. and F.B. Salisbury. 1988. Exploring the limits of crop productivity. Photosynthetic efficiency of wheat in high irradiance environments. Plant Physiol., 88, 869-878

  • Bugbee, B. and O. Monje. 1992. The limits of crop productivity. BioScience, 42, 494-502

  • Bugbee, B., B. Spanarkel, S. Johnson, O. Monje, and G. Koerner. 1994. CO2 crop growth enhancement and toxicity in wheat and rice. Adv. Space Res., 14, 257-267

  • Bugbee, B.G 1995. Nutrient management in recirculating hydroponic culture. 1995 Proceedings from the Hydroponic Society of America, pp 15-30

  • Bucklin, R.A., P.A. Fowler, V.Y Rygalov, R.M. Wheeler, Y. Mu, L. Hublitz, and E.G. Wilkerson. 2004. Greenhouse design for the Mars environment: Development of a prototype deployable dome. Acta Horticulturae, 659, 127-134

  • Bula, R.J., R.C. Morrow, T.W. Tibbitts, D.J. Barta, R.W. Ignatius, and T.S. Martin. 1991. Light-emitting diodes as a radiation source for plants. HortScience, 26, 203-205

  • Burg, S.P. and E.A. Burg. 1966. Fruit storage at subatmospheric pressures. Science, 153, 314-315

  • Cathey, H.M. and L.E. Campbell. 1980. Light and lighting systems for horticultural plants. Horticultural Reviews, 2, 491-537

  • Cao, W. and T.W. Tibbitts. 1991. Potassium concentrations effect on growth, gas exchange, and mineral accumulation in potatoes. J. Plant Nutr., 14, 525-537

  • Cao, W. and T.W. Tibbitts. 1994. Phasic temperature change patterns affect growth and tuberization in potatoes. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 119, 775-778

  • Chamberlain, C.P., M.A. Stasiak and M.A. Dixon. 2003. Response of plant water status to reduced atmospheric pressure. SAE Technical Paper Series, 2003-01-2677

  • Chaerle, L., D. Hagenbeek, X. Vanrobaeys, and D. Van Der Straeten. 2007. Early detection of nutrient and biotic stress in Phaseolus vulgaris. Intl. J. Remote Sensing, 28, 3479-3492

  • Cook, M.E., J.L. Croxdale, T.W. Tibbitts, C.S. Brown, and R.M. Wheeler. 1998. Development and growth of potato tubers in microgravity. Advances in Space Research, 21,1103-1110 Corey, K.A., D.J. Barta, and D.L. Henninger. 1997. Photosynthesis and respiration of a wheat stand at reduced atmospheric pressure and reduced oxygen. Adv. Space Res., 20(10), 1869-1877

  • Corey, K.A., D.J. Barta, and R.M. Wheeler. 2002. Toward Martian agriculture: Responses of plants to hypobaria. 2002. Life Sup. Biosphere Sci., 8,103-114

  • Cuello, J.D., D. Jack, E. Ono, and T. Nakamura. 2000. Supplemental terrestrial solar lighting for an experimental subterranean biomass production chamber. Soc. Automotive Eng. Tech. Paper, 2000-01-2428

  • Croxdale, J., M. Cook, T.W. Tibbitts, C.S. Brown, and R.M. Wheeler. 1997. Structure of potato tubers formed during spaceflight. J. Exp. Bot., 48, 2037-2043

  • Daunicht, H.-J. and H.-J. Brinkjans. 1992. Gas exchange and growth of plants under reduced air pressure. Advances in Space Research, 12(5), 107-114

  • Davis, N. 1985. Controlled-environment agriculture - Past, present, and future. Food Technology, 39, 124-126

  • De Micco, V. R. Buonomo, R. Paradiso, S. De Pascale, and G. Aronne. 2012. Soybean cultivar selection for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) - Theoretical selection. Adv. Space Res., 49, 1415-1421

  • Dixon, M., D. Schmitt. 2001. A Canadian Vision for Advanced Life Support. The Canadian Journal of Space Exploration., 1,1, 6-12

  • Dong, C., Y. Fu, G. Liu, and H. Liu. 2014a. Growth photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant capacity and biomass yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) exposed to LED light sources with different spectra combinations. J. Agronomy and Crop Sci., 200, 219-230

  • Dong, C., Y. Fu, G. Liu, and H. Liu. 2014b. Low light intensity effects on the growth, photosynthetic characteristic, antioxidant capacity, yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.0 at different growth states in BLSS. Adv. Space Res., 53, 1557-1566

  • Dougher, T.A.O. and B.G. Bugbee. 2001. Differences in the response of wheat, soybean and lettuce to reduced blue radiation. Photochem. Photobiol., 73, 199-207

  • Dreschel, T.W. and J.C. Sager. 1989. Control of water and nutrient using a porous tube: A method for growth plants in space. HortScience, 24, 944-947

  • Edeen, M.A., J.S. Dominick, D.J. Barta and N.J.C Packham. 1996. Control of air revitalization using plants: Results of the early human testing initiative Phase I Test. SAE Tech. Paper Series, No. 961522

  • Eley, J.H. and J. Myers. 1964. Study of a photosynthetic gas exchanger. A quantitative repetition of the Priestley experiment. Tex. J. Sci., 16, 296-333

  • Fong, F. and E.A. Funkhouser. 1982. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures. NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC 2-102

  • Fowler, P.A., R.M. Wheeler, R.A. Bucklin, and K.A. Corey. 2000. Low pressure greenhouse concepts for Mars. In: R.M. Wheeler and C. Martin-Brennan (eds.) Mars greenhouses: Concept and Challenges. NASA Tech. Mem. 208577

  • Frantz, J.M., R.J. Joly, and C.A. Mitchell. 2000. Intracanopy lighting influences radiation capture, productivity, and leaf senescence in cowpea canopies. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 125, 694-701

  • Fu, Y. L. Li, B. Xie, C. Dong, M. Wang, B. Jia, L. Sho, Y. Dong, S. Deng, H. Liu, G. Liu, B. Liu, D. Hu, and H. Liu. 2016. How to establish a bioregenerative life support system for long-term crewed missions to the Moon and Mars. Astrobiology (In Press)

  • Gazenko, O.G. 1967. Development of biology in the USSR. In: Soviet Science and Technology for 50 years. Nauka Press, Moscow (In Russian; citation from Salisbury et al., 1997).

  • Gerbaud, A. M. Andre, and C. Richaud. 1988. Gas exchange and nutrition patterns during the life cycle of an artificial wheat crop. Physiol. Plant., 73, 471-478

  • Gianfagna, T.J., L. Logendra, E.F. Durner, and H.W. Janes. 1998. Improving tomato harvest index by controlling crop height and side shoot production. Life Support and Biosphere Science, 5, 255-262

  • Gitelson, I.I., B.G. Kovrov, G.M. Lisovsky, Y.N. Okladikova, M.S. Rerberg, F.Y. Sidko, and I. A. Terskov. 1975. Toxic gases emitted by Chlorella. In: Problems in Space Biology

  • Gitelson, J.I., I.A. Terskov, B.G. Kovrov, R. Ya. Sidko, G.M. Lisovsky, Yu. N. Okladnikov, V.N. Belyanin, I.N. Trubachov, and M.S. Rerberg. 1976. Life support system with autonomous control employing plant photosynthesis. Acta Astronautica, 3, 633-650

  • Gitelson, J.I., I.A. Terskov, B.G. Kovrov, G.M. Lisoviskii, Yu. N. Okladnikov, F. Ya. Sid’ko, I.N. Tuubachev, M.P. Shilenko, S.S. Alekseev, I.M. Pan’kova, and L.S. Tirranen. 1989. Long-term experiments on man’s stay in biological life-support system. Adv. Space Res., 9(8), 65-71

  • Gitelson, J.I. and Yu. N. Okladnikov. 1994. Man as a component of a closed ecological life support systems. Life Support Biosphere Sci., 1, 73-81

  • Godia, F., J. Albiol, J. Perez, N. Creus, F. Cabello, A. Montras, A. Maso, and Ch. Lasseur. 2004. The MELISSA pilot plant facility as an integration test-bed for advanced life support systems. Advances in Space Research, 34, 1483-1493

  • Goins, G.D., N.C. Yorio, M.M. Sanwo, and C.S. Brown. 1997. Photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield of wheat plants grown under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with and without supplemental blue lighting. J. Exp. Bot., 48, 1407-1413

  • Goins, G.D., L.M. Ruffe, N.A. Cranston, N.C. Yorio, R.M. Wheeler, and J.C. Sager. 2001. Salad crop production under different wavelengths of red light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Soc. Automotive Eng. Tech. Paper, 2001-01-2422

  • Goldman, K.R. and C.A. Mitchell. 1999. Transfer from long to short photoperiods affects production efficiency of day-neutral rice. HortScience, 34, 875-877

  • Golueke, C.G. and W.J. Oswald. 1964. Role of plants in closed systems. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 15, 387-408

  • Goto, E., Ohta, H., Iwabuchi, K., Takakura, T. Measurement of net photosynthetic and transpiration rates of spinach and maize plants under hypobaric conditions. J. Agric. Meteorol., 1996, 52, 117-123

  • Goto, E. 2012. Plant production in a closed plant factory with artificial lighting. Acta Hort., 956, 37-50

  • Greg, P. 2006. Across the zodiac. BiblioBazaar ISBN-1-4264-4026-X (originally written in 1880)

  • Grodzinski, B. 1992. Plant nutrition and growth regulation by CO2 enrichment. BioScience, 42, 517-525

  • Gros, J.B., L. Poughon, C. Lasseur, and A. A. Tikhomirov. 2004. Recycling efficiencies of C, H, O, N, S, and P elements in a biological life support system based on microorganisms and higher plants Advances in Space Research, 31, 195-199

  • Grotenhuis, T.P. and B. Bugbee. 1997. Super-optimal CO2 reduces seed yield but not vegetative growth in wheat. Crop Science, 37, 1215-1222

  • Guerra, D., A.J. Anderson, and F.B. Salisbury. 1985. Reduced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities and lignin synthesis in wheat grown under low-pressure sodium lamps. Plant Physiol., 78, 126-130

  • Guo, S., X. Liu, W. Ai, Y. Tang, J. Zhu,, X. Wang, M. Wei, L. Qin, and Y. Yang. 2008. Development of an improved ground-based prototyped of space plant-growing facility. Adv. Space Res., 41, 736-741

  • He, C., F.R. Davies, and R.E. Lacey. 2007. Separating the effects of hypobaria and hypoxia on lettuce: growth and gas exchange. Physiologia Plantarum, 131, 226-240

  • He, C., R.T. Davies, and R.E. Lacey. 2009. Ethylene reduces gas exchange and growth of lettuce plants under hypobaric and normal atmospheric conditions. Physiol. Plant,135, 258-271

  • Heinse, R., S.B. Jones, S.L. Steinberg, M. Tuller, and D. Or. 2007. Measurements and modeling of variable gravity effects on water distribution and flow in unsaturated porous media. Vadose Zone J., 6, 713-724

  • Heinse, R., S.B. Jones, M. Tuller, G.E. Bingham, I. Podolskiy, and D. Or. 2009. Providing optimal root-zone fluid fluxes: Effects of hysteresis on capillary-dominated water distributions in reduced gravity. SAE Technical Paper, 2009-01-2360

  • Hoff, J.E., J.M. Howe, and C.A. Mitchell. 1982. Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a regenerative life Support system. Report to NASA Ames Research Center, NSG2401 and NSG 2404

  • Hummerick, M.E., J. Garland, G. Bingham, V.N. Sychev, and I.G. Podolsky. 2010. Microbiological analysis of Lada Vegetable Production Units (VPU) to define critical control points and procedures to ensure the safety of space grown vegetables. Amer. Inst. Aeronautics Astronautics, 40th ICES meeting, Barcelona, Spain, July 11-15, 2010. AIAA-2010-6253

  • Iwabuchi, K., E. Goto, and T. Takakura. 1996. Germination and growth of spinach under hypobaric conditions. Environ. Control in Biol., 34, 169-178

  • Iwabuchi, K. and K. Kurata. 2003. Short-term and long-term effects of low total pressure on gas exchange rates of spinach. Adv. Space Res., 31(1), 241-244

  • Jasoni, R., C. Kane, C. Green, E. Peffley, D. Tissue, L. Thompson, P. Payton, and P. W. Pare. 2004. Altered leaf and root emissions from onion (Allium cepa L.) grown under elevated CO2 conditions. Environment and Experimental Botany., 51, 273-280

  • Kacira, M., G. Giacomelli, L. Patterson, R. Furfaro, P. Sadler, G. Boscheri, C. Lobascio, M. Lamantea, R. Wheeler, and S. Rossignoli. 2012. System dynamics and performance factors of a lunar greenhouse prototype bioregenerative life support system. Acta Hort., 952, 575-582

  • Karel, M., A.R. Kamarel, and Z. Nakhost. 1985. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components. Potential for utilization of algae in engineered foods. NASA CR-176257

  • Katayama, N., Y. Ishikawa, M. Takaoki, M. Yamashita, S. Nakayama, K. Kiguchi, R. Kok, H. Wada, J. Mitsuhashi,. 2008. Entomophagy: A key to space agriculture. Adv. Space Res., 41, 701-705

  • Kibe, S. and K. Suzuki. 1997. Japan’s activities on CELSS in space. In: P. M. Bainum, G.L. May, M. Nagatomo, K.T. Uesugi, F. Bingchen, and Z. Hui (eds.), Space Cooperation into the 21st Century (7th ISCOPS) AAS 97-459, 96, 605-125

  • Kim, H-H., G.D. Goins, R.M. Wheeler, and J.C. Sager. 2004. Stomatal of lettuce grown under or exposed to different light qualities. Annals of Botany, 94, 691-697

  • Kim, H-H., J. Norikane, R.M. Wheeler, J.C. Sager, and N.C. Yorio. 2007. Electric lighting considerations for crop production in space. Acta Horticulturae, 761, 193-202

  • Kitaya, Y. M. Kawai, J. Tsuruyama, H. Takahashi, A. Tani, E. Goto, T. Saito, M. Kiyota. 2003. The effect of gravity on surface temperature of plant leaves. Plant, Cell Environment, 26, 497-503

  • Kitaya, Y. and H. Hirai. 2008. Effects of lighting and air movement on temperatures in reproductive organs of plants in a closed plant growth facility. Adv. Space Res., 41, 763-676

  • Kitaya, Y. H. Hirai, X. Wei, A.F.M.S. Islam, and M. Yamamoto. 2008. Growth of sweetpotato cultured in the newly designed hydroponic system for space farming. Adv. Space Res., 41, 730-735

  • Klassen, S.P. and B. Bubgee. 2004. Ethylene synthesis and sensitivity in crop plants. HortScience, 39, 1546-1552

  • Kliss, M. and R.D. MacElroy. 1990. Salad machine: A vegetable production unit for long duration space missions. SAE Tech. Paper 901280. Williamsburg, VA, USA. July 1990

  • Kliss, M., A.G. Heyenga, A. Hoehn and L.S. Stodieck. 2000. Recent advances in technologies required for a “Salad Machine”. Adv. Space Res., 26(2), 263-269

  • Knight, S.L. and C.A. Mitchell. 1988. Effects of incandescent radiation on photosynthesis, growth rate and yield of Waldmann’s Green’ leaf lettuce . Scientia Horticulturae, 35, 37-49

  • Krauss, R. 1962. Mass culture of algae for food and other organic compounds. Amer. J. Botany, 49, 425-435

  • Krall, A.R. and B. Kok. 1960. Studies on algal gas exchanges with reference to space flight. Developments in Industrial Microbiology, 1, 33-44

  • Lasseur, C., W. Verstraete, J.B. Gros, G. Dubertret, and F. Rogalla. 1996. MELISSA: a potential experiment for a precursor mission to the Moon. Adv. Space Res., 18, 111-117

  • Lange, K, A.T. Perka, B.E. Duffield and F.F. Jeng 2005. Bounding the spacecraft atmosphere design space for future exploration missions. NASA Contractor Report CR-2005-213689

  • Law, J., M, Van Baalen, M. Foy, S.S. Mason, C. Mendez, M.L. Wear, V.E. Meyers, and D. Alexander. 2014. Relationship between carbon dioxide levels and reported headaches on the International Space Station. J. Occupational Environ. Medicine, 56(5), 477-483

  • Lenk, S., L. Chaerle, E.E. Pfundel, G. Langsdorf, D. Hagenbeek, H.K. Lichtenthaler, D. Van Der Straeten, and C. Buschmann. 2007. Multispectral fluorescence and reflectance imaging at the leaf level and its possible applications. J. Experimental Botany, 58, 807-814

  • Ley, W. 1948. Rockets and space travel. The future of flight beyond the stratosphere. The Viking Press, New York, NY, USA. pp. 374

  • Levinskikh, M.A., V.N. Sychev, T.A. Derendyaeva, O.B. Signalova, F.B. Salisbury, W.F. Campbell, G.E. Bingham, D.L. Bubenheim, and G. Jahns. 2000. Analysis of the spaceflight effects on growth and development of Super Dwarf wheat grown on the space station Mir. J. Plant Physiol., 156, 522-529

  • Levine, L.H., P.A. Bisbee, T.A. Richards, M.N. Birmele, R.L. Prior, M. Perchonok, M. Dixon, N.C. Yorio, G.W. Stutte, and R.M. Wheeler. 2008. Quality characteristics of radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure. Adv. Space Res., 41, 754-762

  • Lisovsky, G.M., J.I. Gitelson, M.P. Shilenko, I.V. Brivovskaya, and I.M Trubachev. 1997. Direct utilization of human liquid wastes by plants in a closed ecosystem. Adv. Space Res., 20(10), 1801-1804

  • Loader, C.A., J.L. Garland, L.H. Levine, K.L. Cook, C.L. Mackowiak, and H.R. Vivenzio. 1999. Direct recycling of human hygiene water into hydroponic plant growth systems. Life Support Biosphere Sci., 6, 141-152

  • Lobascio, C., M. Lamantea, M.A. Perino, L. Bertaggia, V. Bornicsacci, and F. Piccolo. 2006. Plant facilities for inflatable habitats. ICES Tech. Paper, 2006-01-2214

  • Lobascio, C., M. Lamantea, S. Palumberi, V. Cotronei, B. Negri, S. De Pascale, A. Maggio, M. Maffei, and M. Fote. 2008. Functional architecture and development of the CAB bioregenerative system. SAE Technical Paper, 2008-01-2012

  • MacElroy, R.D. and J. Bredt. 1985. Current concepts and future directions of CELSS. Adv. Space Res., 4(12), 221-230

  • MacElroy, R.D., M. Kliss, and C. Straight. 1992. Life support systems for Mars transit. Adv. Space Res., 12(5), 159-166

  • Mackowiak, C.L, R.M. Wheeler, G.W. Stutte, N.C. Yorio, and L.M. Ruffe. 1998. A recirculating hydroponic system for studying peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). HortScience, 33, 650-651

  • Mansell, R.L. 1968. Effects of prolonged reduced pressure on the growth and nitrogen content of turnip (Brassica rapa L.). SAM-TR-68-100. School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas

  • Massa, G.D, H.H. Kim, R.M. Wheeler, and C.A. Mitchell 2008. Plant productivity in response to LED lighting. HortScience, 43(7), 1951-1956

  • Massa, G.E., N.F. Dufour, J.A. Carver, M.E. Hummerick, R.M. Wheeler, R.C. Morrow, T.M. Smith. 2016. VEG-01: Veggie hardware validation testing on the International Space Station. Open Agricul. (in press)

  • Masuda, T., T. Ogasawara, E. Harashima, Y. Tako, and K. Nitta. 2005. Evaluation and implementation of an advanced life support (ALS) menu for Closed ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). Eco-Engineering, 17(1), 55-60

  • Matthern, R.O. and R.B. Koch. 1964. Developing an unconventional food, algae, by continuous culture under high light intensity. Food Technol., 18, 58-65

  • McAvoy, R.J., H.W. Janes, B.L. Godfriaux, M. Secks, D. Duchai, and W.K. Wittman. 1989. The effect of total available photosynthetic photon flux on single truss tomato growth and production. J. Hort. Science, 64, 331-338

  • Mergeay, M., W. Verstraete, G. Dubertet, M. Lefort-Tran, C. Chipaux, and R. Binot. 1987. MELISSA- A microorganisms-based model for CELSS develop. Proceedings 3rd European Symp. Space Thermal Control and Life Support Systems, Noordwijk, ESA SP-288. pp. 65-68

  • Mitchell, C.A., M.P. Dzakovich, C. Gomez, R. Lopez, J.F. Burr, R. Hernandez, C. Kubota, C.J. Currey, Q. Meng, E. S. Runkle, C. M. Bourget, R.C. Morrow, and A.J. Both. 2015. Light-emitting diodes in horticulture. Horticultural Reviews, Volume 43, 1-87

  • Miller, R.L. and C.H. Ward. 1966. Algal bioregenerative systems. In: E. Kammermeyer (ed.) Atmosphere in space cabins and closed environments. Appleton-Century-Croft Pub., New York., pp. 186-221

  • Monje, O., and B. Bugbee. 1998. Adaptation to high CO2 concentration in an optimal environment: Radiation capture, canopy quantum yield and carbon use efficiency. Plant Cell Environ., 21, 315-324

  • Monje, O., G. Stutte, and D. Chapman. 2005. Microgravity does not alter plant stand gas exchange of wheat at moderate light levels and saturating CO2 concentration. Planta, 222, 336-345

  • Morrow, R.C., W.R. Dinauer, R.J. Bula, and T.W. Tibbitts. 1993. The ASTROCULTURE™-1 flight experiment: Pressure control of the WCSAR porous tube nutrient delivery system. SAE Technical Paper Series, No. 932292

  • Morrow, R.C. 2008. LED lighting in horticulture. HortScience, 43(7), 1947-1950

  • Mortley, D.G., C.K. Bonsi, P.A. Loretan, C.E. Morris, W.A. Hill, and C.R. Ogbuehi. 1991. Evaluation of sweet potato genotypes for adaptability to hydroponic systems. Crop Sci., 31, 845-847

  • Mortley, D.G., C.K. Bonsi, W.A. Hill, P.A. Loretan, and C.E. Morris. 1993. Irradiance and nitrogen to potassium ratio influences sweetpotato yield in nutrient film technique. Crop Science, 33, 782-784

  • Mortley, D., J. Hill, P. Loretan, C. Bonsi, and W. Hill. 1996. Elevated carbon dioxide influences yield and photosynthetic responses of hydroponically-grown sweetpotato. Acta Hort., 440, 31-36

  • Mortley, E.G., C.K. Bonsi, P.A. Loretan, W.A. Hill, and C.E. Morris. 2000. High relative humidity increases yield, harvest index, flowering, and gynophore growth of hydroponically grown peanut plants. HortSci., 35, 46-48

  • Myers, J. 1954. Basic remarks on the use of plants as biological gas exchangers in a closed system. J. Aviation Med., 25, 407-411

  • Nakamura, T., A.D. van Pelt, N.C. Yorio, A.E. Drysdale, R.M. Wheeler, and J.C. Sager. 2009. Transmission and distribution of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) from solar and electric light sources. Habitation, 12(1), 103-117

  • Nelson, M., W.F. Dempster, S. Silverstone, A. Alling, J.P. Allen and M. van Thillo. 2005. Crop yield and light/energy efficiency in a closed ecological system: Laboratory biosphere experiments with wheat and sweet potato. Advances in Space Research, 35(9), 1539-1543

  • Nelson, M., W.F. Dempster, J.P. Allen, S. Silverston, A. Alling, and M. van Thillo. 2008. Cowpeas and pinto beans: Performance and yield of candidate space crops in the laboratory biosphere closed ecological system. Adv. Space Res. ,41, 748-753

  • Nitta, K. and M. Yamashita. 1985. Concept study on the technology of CELSS. Earth-Orient. Applic. Space Technol., 5(3), 253-263

  • Nitta, K. K. Otsubo, and A. Ashida. 2000. Integration test project of CEEF-A test bed for closed ecological life support Systems Adv. Space Res., 26, 335-338

  • Ohler, T.A. and C.A. Mitchell. 1996. Identifying yield-optimizing environments for two cowpea breeding lines by manipulating photoperiod and harvest scenario. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 121, 576-581

  • Paradiso, R., R. Buonomo, V. De Micco, G. Aronne, M. Palermo, G. Barbieri, and S. De Pascale. 2012. Soybean cultivar selection for bioregenerative life support systems (BLSSs) - Hydroponic cultivation. Adv. Space Res., 50, 1501-1511

  • Paradiso, R., V. De Micco, R. Buonomo, G. Aronne, G. Barbier, and S. De Pascale. 2014. Soilless cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life-Support Systems: a literature review and the experience of the MELiSSA Project - food characterisation Phase I. Plant Biology, 16, (Suppl. 1), 69-78

  • Patterson, R.L., G.A. Giacomelli, and P.A. Sadler. 2008. Resource and production model for the South Pole food growth chamber. SAE Technical Paper, 2008-01-2011

  • Paul, A-L., A.C. Schuerger, M.P. Popp, J.T. Richards, M.S. Manak, R.J. and Ferl. 2004. Hypobaric biology: Arabidopsis gene expression at low atmospheric pressure. Plant Physiol., 134, 215-223

  • Porter M.A. and B. Grodzinski. 1985. CO2 enrichment of protected crops. Horticultural Reviews, 7, 345-398

  • Prince, R.P. and J.W. Bartok. 1978. Plant spacing for controlled environment plant growth. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agric. Eng., 21, 332-336

  • Prince, R.P. and W.M. Knott. 1989. CELSS Breadboard Project at the Kennedy Space Center. In D.W. Ming and D.L. Henninger (eds.). Lunar Base Agriculture: Soils for Plant Growth. Amer. Soc. of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA. pp. 155-163

  • Qin, L., S. Guo, W. Ai, and Y. Tang. 2008. Selection of candidate salad vegetables for controlled ecological life support system. Advances in Space Research, 41, 768-772

  • Qin, L., S. Guo, W. Ai, Y. Tang, Q. Cheng, G. Chen. 2013. Effect of salt stress on growth and physiology in amaranth and lettuce: Implications for bioregenerative life support system. Adv. Space Res., 51, 476-482

  • Ren, J., S. Guo, C. Xu, C. Yang, W. Ai, Y. Tang, and L. Qin. 2014. Effects of different carbon dioxide and LED lighting levels on the anti-oxidative capabilities of Gynura bicolor DC. Adv. Space Res., 53, 353-361

  • Resh, H.M. 1989. Hydroponic food production. 4th Edition. Woodbridge Press Publ. Comp., Santa Barbara CA. pp. 462

  • Rossignoli, S. and Aero Sekur Inc. 2016. Co-organizer and sponsor of AgroSpace Workshops from 2006-2016: http://www.agrospaceconference.com/

  • Rygalov, V.Y., P. A. Fowler, R.M. Wheeler, and R.A. Bucklin. 2004. Water cycle and its management for plant habitats at reduced pressures. Habitation, 10(1), 49-59

  • Sadler, P. 1995. The Antarctic horticultural project. Proc. Hydroponic Soc. Amer. 16th Ann. Conf. on Hydroponics, Tucson, AZ. pp. 95-107

  • Sadler, P.D. and G.A. Giacomelli. 2002. Mars inflatable greenhouse analog. Life Support Biosphere Sci., 8, 115-123

  • Salisbury, F.B. 1991. Lunar farming: Achieving maximum yield for the exploration of space. HortScience, 26(7), 827-833

  • Salisbury, F.B., J.E. Gitelson, and G.M. Lisovsky. 1997. Bios-3: Siberian experiments in bioregenerative life support. BioScience ,47, 575-585

  • Salisbury, F.B., W. F. Campbell, J. G. Carman, G. E. Bingham, D. L. Bubenheim, B. Yendler, V. Sytchev, M. A. Levinskikh, I. Ivanova, L. Chernova and I. Podolsky. 2003. Plant growth during the greenhouse II experiment on the Mir orbital station. Adv. Space Res., 31(1), 221-227

  • Schubert, D. D. Quantius, J. Hauslage, L. Glasgow, F. Schroder, and M. Dorn. 2011. Advanced Greenhouse Modules for use within Planetary Habitats. 41st ICES, Portland, Oregon AIAA 2011-5166

  • Schuerger, A.C., C.S. Brown, and E.C. Stryjewski. 1997. Anatomical features of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under red light-emitting diodes supplemented with blue or far-red light. Ann. Botany, 79, 273-282

  • Schwartzkopf, S.H. 1985. A non-destructive method for monitoring plant growth. HortSci., 20, 432-434

  • Schwartzkopf, S.H. and R.L. Mancinelli. 1991. Germination and growth of wheat in simulated Martian atmospheres. Acta Astronautica, 25(4), 245-247

  • Sorokin, C. and J. Myers. 1953. A high-temperature strain of Chlorella. Science, 117, 330-331

  • Stasiak, M.A., R. Cote, M. Dixon, and B. Grodzinski. 1998. Increasing plant productivity in closed environments with inner canopy illumination. Life Supp. Biosph. Sci., 5, 175-182

  • Stasiak, M., G. Waters, Y. Zheng, B. Grodzinski and M. Dixon. 2003. Integrated multicropping of beet and lettuce and its effect on atmospheric stability. SAE Technical Paper, 2003-01-2357

  • Stasiak, M., D. Gidzinski, M. Jordan, and M. Dixon. 2012. Crop selection for advanced life support systems in the ESA MELiSSA program: Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum). Adv. Space Res., 49, 1684-1690

  • Strayer, R.F., M.P. Alazraki, N. Yorio, and B.W. Finger. 1998. Bioprocessing wheat residues to recycle plant nutrients to the JSC variable pressure growth chamber during the L/MLSTP Phase III test. SAE Tech. Paper Series 981706

  • Stutte, G.W., C.L. Mackowiak, N.C. Yorio, and R.M. Wheeler. 1999. Theoretical and practical considerations of staggered crop production in a BLSS. Life Support Biosphere Sci., 6, 287-291

  • Stutte, G.W., O. Monje, G.D. Goins, and B.C. Tripathy. 2005. Microgravity effects on thylakoid, leaf, and whole canopy photosynthesis of dwarf wheat. Planta, 223, 46-56

  • Subbarao, G.V., R.M. Wheeler, and G.W. Stutte. 2000. Feasibility of substituting sodium for potassium in crop plants for advanced life support systems. Life Sup. Biosphere Sci., 7, 225-232

  • Sugimoto, M. Y. Oono, O. Gusev, T. Matsumoto, T. Yazawa, M. A. Levinshkikh, V.N. Sychev, G.E. Bingham, R. Wheeler and M. Hummerick. 2014. Genome-wide expression analysis of reactive oxygen species gene network in mizuna plants grown in long-term spaceflight. BMC Plant Biology, 2014, 14,4

  • Sytchev, V.N., E.Ya. Shepelev, G.I. Meleshhko, T.S. Gurieva, M.A. Levinskikh, I.G. Podolshy, O.A. Dadsheva, and V.V. Popov. 2001. Main characteristics of biological components of developing life support system observed during experiment about orbital complex MIR. Adv. Space Res., 27(9), 1529-1534

  • Sytchev, V.N., M.A. Levinskikh, S.A. Gostimsky, G.E. Bingham, and I.G. Podolsky. 2007. Spaceflight effects on consecutive generations of peas grown onboard the Russian segment of the International Space Station. Acta Astronautica, 60, 426-432

  • Tako, Y., R. Arai, K. Otsubo, and K. Nitta. 2001. Integration of sequential cultivation of main crops and gas and water processing subsystems using closed ecology experiment facility. SAE Technical Paper, 2001-01-2133

  • Tako, Y. S. Tsuga, T. Tani, R. Arai, O. Komatsubara, and M. Shinohara. 2008. On-week habitation of two humans in an airtight facility with two goats and 23 crops-Analysis of carbon, oxygen, and water circulation. Adv. Space Res., 41, 714-724

  • Tako, Y., R. Arai, S. Tsuga, O., Komatsubara, T. Masuda, S. Nozoe, and K. Nitta. 2010. CEEF: Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities. Gravitation and Space Biol., 23(2), 13-24

  • Tani, A., Y. Kitaya, M. Kiyota, I. Aiga, and K. Nitta. 1996. Problems related to plant cultivation in a closed system. Life Support and Biosphere Sci., 3, 129-140

  • Tang, Y. S. Guo, W. Dong, L. Qin, W. Ai, and S. Lin. 2010. Effects of long-term low atmospheric pressure on gas exchange and growth of lettuce. Adv. Space Res., 46, 751-760

  • Taub, R.B. 1974. Closed ecological systems. In: R.F. Johnston, P.W. Frank, and C.D. Michener (eds.) Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. Annual Reviews Inc., Palo Alto, CA. pp. 139-160

  • Tennessen, D.J., R.L. Singsaas, and T.D. Sharkey. 1994. Lightemitting diodes as a light source for photosynthesis research. Photosynthesis Research, 39, 85-92

  • Tibbitts, T.W. and D.K. Alford. 1982. Controlled ecological life support system. Use of higher plants. NASA Conf. Publ., 2231

  • Tikhomirov А.А., S.А. Ushakova, N.S. Manukovsky, G.М. Lisovsky, Yu. А. Kudenko, Kovalev, I.V. Gribovskaya, L.S. Tirranen, I.G. Zolotukhin, J.B. Gros, Ch. Lasseur. 2003. Synthesis of biomass and utilization of plants wastes in a physical model of biological life-support system. Acta Astronautica, 53, 249-257

  • Tikhomirova N.A., S.A. Ushakova, N.P. Kovaleva, I.V. Gribovskaya, and A.A. Tikhomirov. 2005. Influence of high concentrations of mineral salts on production process and NaCl accumulation by Salicornia europaea plants as a constituent of the LSS phototroph link. Adv. Space Res., 35, 1589-1593

  • Tolley-Henry, L. and C.D. Raper Jr. 1986. Utilization of ammonium as a nitrogen source. Effects of ambient acidity on growth and nitrogen accumulation by soybean. Plant Physiol., 82, 54-60

  • Tripathy, B.C. and C.S. Brown. 1995. Root-shoot interaction in the greening of wheat seedlings grown under red light. Plant Physiol., 107, 407-411

  • Tsiolkovsky, K.E. 1975. Study of outer space by reaction devices. In: NASA Technical Translation NASA TT F-15571 of “Issledovaniye mirovykh prostranstv reaktivnymi priborami”, Mashinotroyeniye Press, Moscow, 1967

  • Wada, H., M. Yamashita, N. Katayama, J. Mitsuhashi, H. Takeda, and H. Hashimoto. 2009. Agriculture on Earth and on Mars. In: J .H. Denis and P.D. Aldridge (eds.), Space Exploration Research, pp. 481-498

  • Wang, M., B. Xie, Y. Fu, C. Dong, L. Hui, L. Guanghui, and H. Liu. 2015a. Effects of different elevated CO2 concentrations on chlorophyll contents, gas exchange, water use efficiency, and PSII activity on C3 and C4 cereal crops in a closed artificial ecosystem. Photosynthesis Research, 126(2-3), 351-362

  • Wang, M., Y. Fu, and H. Liu. 2015b. Nutritional status and ion uptake response of Gynura bicolor DC between Porous-tube and traditional hydroponic growth systems. Acta Astronautica, 113, 13-21

  • Waters, G.R., A. Olabi, J.B. Hunter, M.A. Dixon and C. Lasseur. 2002. Bioregenerative food system cost based on optimized menus for advanced life support. Life Support and Biosphere Science, 8(3/4), 199-210

  • Wehkamp, C.A., M. Stasiak, J. Lawson, N. Yorio, G. Stutte, J. Richards, R. Wheeler, and M. Dixon. 2012. Radish (Raphanus sativa L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) growth, net carbon exchange rated, and transpiration at decreased atmospheric pressure and / or oxygen. Gravitational and Space Biol., Vol. 26(1), 3-16

  • Wheeler, R.M. and T.W. Tibbitts. 1986. Growth and tuberization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L) under continuous light. Plant Physiol., 801-804

  • Wheeler, R.M., C.L. Mackowiak, J.C. Sager, W.M. Knott, and C.R. Hinkle. 1990. Potato growth and yield using nutrient film technique. American Potato Journal, 67, 177-187

  • Wheeler, R.M., T.W. Tibbitts, and A.H. Fitzpatrick. 1991. Carbon dioxide effects on potato growth under different photoperiods and irradiance. Crop Science, 31, 1209-1213

  • Wheeler, R.M., C.L. Mackowiak, L.M. Siegriest, and J.C. Sager. 1993a. Supraoptimal carbon dioxide effects on growth of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). J. Plant Physiol. 142:173-178.

  • Wheeler, R.M., K.A. Corey, J.C. Sager, and W.M. Knott. 1993b. Gas exchange rates of wheat stands grown in a sealed chamber. Crop Sci., 33, 161-168

  • Wheeler, R.M., G.W. Stutte, C.L. Mackowiak, N.C. Yorio, and L.M. Ruffe. 1995. Accumulation of possible potato tuber-inducing factor in continuous use recirculating NFT systems. HortSci., 30, 790 (#262)

  • Wheeler, R.M., C.L. Mackowiak, G.W. Stutte, J.C. Sager, N.C. Yorio. L.M. Ruffe, R.E. Fortson, T.W. Dreschel, W.M. Knott, and K.A. Corey. 1996a. NASA’s Biomass Production Chamber: A testbed for bioregenerative life support studies. Adv. Space Res., 18(4/5), 215-224

  • Wheeler, R.M., B.V. Peterson, J.C. Sager, and W.M. Knott. 1996b. Ethylene production by plants in a closed environment. Adv. Space Res., 18(4/5), 193-196

  • Wheeler, R.M. and C. Martin-Brennan (eds.). 2000. Mars greenhouses: Concept and Challenges. Proceedings from a 1999 Workshop. NASA Tech. Memorandum 208577

  • Wheeler, R.M., B.V. Peterson, and G.W. Stutte. 2004. Ethylene production throughout growth and development of plants. HortScience, 39(7), 1541-1545

  • Wheeler, R.M., G.W. Stutte, C.L. Mackowiak, N.C. Yorio, J.C. Sager, and W.M. Knott. 2008. Gas exchange rates of potato stands for bioregenerative life support. Adv. Space Res., 41, 798-806

  • Wolverton, B.C., R.C. McDonald, and W.R. Duffer. 1983. Microorganisms and plants for waste water treatment. J. Environ. Qual., 12, 236-242

  • Wolff, S.A., L.H. Coelho, M. Zabrodina, E. Brinckmann, A.-I. Kittang. 2013. Plant mineral nutrition, gas exchange and photosynthesis in space: A review. Adv. Space Res., 51, 465-475

  • Wright, B.D., W.C. Bausch, and W.M. Knott. 1988. A hydroponic system for microgravity plant experiments. Trans. Amer. Soc. Agricul. Eng., 31, 440-446

  • Yamashita, M, N. Katayama, H. Hashimoto, and K. Toita-Yokotani. 2007. Space agriculture for habitation on Mars-Perspective from Japan and Asia. J. Jpn. Soc. Microgravity Appl., 24(4), 340-347

  • Yamashita, M. H. Hashimoto, and H. Wada. 2009. On-site resources availability for space agriculture on Mars. In: V. Badescu (ed.), Mars: Prospective Energy and Material Resources, Springer- Verlag, Berlin. pp. 517-542

  • Zabel, P., M. Bamsey, D. Schubert, M. Tajmar. 2016. Review and analysis of over 40 years of space plant growth systems. Life Sciences in Space Research, 10, 1-16

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search