Between Land and Sea: An Airborne LiDAR Field Survey to Detect Ancient Sites in the Chekka Region/Lebanon Using Spatial Analyses

Jakob Rom 1 , Florian Haas 2 , Manuel Stark 2 , Fabian Dremel 2 , Michael Becht 2 , Karin Kopetzky 3 , Christoph Schwall 3 , Michael Wimmer 4 , Norbert Pfeifer 4 , Mahmoud Mardini 5 , and Hermann Genz 6
  • 1 Catholic University of Eichstaett-Ingolstadt, , Ostenstrasse 14, Eichstaett, 85072, Germany
  • 2 Catholic University of Eichstaett-Ingolstadt, , Eichstätt, Germany
  • 3 Austrian Academy of Sciences, , Vienna, Austria
  • 4 Vienna University of Technology, , Vienna, Austria
  • 5 The Cyprus Institute, , Nicosia, Cyprus
  • 6 American University of Beirut, , Beirut, Lebanon


The interdisciplinary project “Between Land and Sea” combines geological, geomorphological and paleo-environmental approaches to identify archaeological remains of the Chekka region (Lebanon). In order to record the topography of this area, the first ever scientific airborne LiDAR data acquisition in Lebanon was conducted in autumn 2018. This work describes not only the acquisition and processing of the LiDAR data, but also the attempt to derive possible archaeological sites from the generated elevation model based on methods for spatial analysis. Using an “inverted mound” (iMound) algorithm, areas of possible settlement structures could be identified, which were classified regarding their probability of a possible ancient site using a deductive predictive model. A preliminary validation of some of the detected favoured areas using high-resolution aerial images has shown that the methods applied can provide hints to previously undiscovered sites. It was possible to identify probable ancient wall remains at several detected locations. In addition, least-cost path analyses were performed to reconstruct possible trade and transport routes from the Lebanon Mountains to the Mediterranean coast. The combination of the results of the iMound detection and classification as well as the calculated path system could point to the strategic location of the modern village of Kfar Hazir as a kind of traffic junction. Moreover, reconstructed main transport routes provide indications of heavily frequented roads and may form the basis for further investigations. To validate the results, upcoming field surveys will be realized on site.

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