God Is Dying in Turkey as Well: Application of Secularization Theory to a Non-Christian Society

Volkan Ertit 1
  • 1 Aksaray University, , Aksaray, Turkey

Abstract

It has been stated in academic studies and popular media that Islam began its rise in dominance in Turkey with the accession of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) to power in 2002 under the leadership of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. However, contrary to claims of societal Islamization, in light of quantitative and qualitative studies this study argues that despite the AKP and its leader Erdoğan being in power, the following evidence has been observed in Turkey: praying rates have decreased, extramarital sexual relationship has become prevalent, the number of mosques per person has decreased, the belief in virginity is a point of honour for fewer people, people‘s clothes have become more flatteringly formfitting and more attractive, including women’s head-scarves; secular experts rather than religious officials are being sought for help concerning problems in daily life, homosexuality has become more socially acceptable visible, traditional family structures has been shattered. Therefore, it is claimed that AKP (or Erdoğan) has failed in efforts to Islamize Turkey over the past 15 years (2002-2017) despite having all the governmental means and opportunities to do so. This study argues that the classical theory of secularization, which claims that modernization leads to secularization, can still explain not only the social transformation seen in historically Christian and Western European countries and their offshoots, but also the social transformation of Turkey, a Muslim-majority country that has been governed for the past 15 years by a political party with clear Islamic sensitivities.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Akın, Ayşe & Özvarış, Şevkat Bahar. Adölesanların cinsel ve üreme sağlığını etkileyen faktörler projesi. [Factors affecting sexual and reproductive health of adolescents]. Ankara: Hacettepe University Women’s Studies Research and Application Center, 2003.

  • AKP Group Meeting. “Speech of Erdoğan.” 2013 November 5. Retrieved from http://www.milliyet.com.tr/Milliyet-Tv/video-izle/Tartisilan-sozlerine-aciklama-U5uTiuvYsRXj.html [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Albayrak, Ali & Çapcıoğlu, İhsan. “Ehl-i Sünnet Geleneğine Bağlı Bir Orta Anadolu Köyünde Halk İnançları ve Uygulamaları [Folk Beliefs and Practices in a Central Anatolian Village Depended on the Tradition of the Ahl-i Sunnah].” Religious Studies, 8:24 (2006), 107-132.

  • Amman, M.Tayfun. “Ailenin Açık ve Örtük Sekülerleşmesinin Sosyolojik Analizi [Sociological Analysis of Explicit and Implicit Secularization of Family].” In Aile ve Eğitim [Family and Education], edited by M. Faruk Bayraktar, 41-70. İstanbul: Ensar Neşr, 2010.

  • Anık, Mehmet. “Two axes revolving around the discussions of secularism in Turkey: Şerif Mardin and İsmail Kara.” Human & Society, 2:4 (2012), 9-34. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12658/human.society.2.4.M0056

  • Association for Sexual Education Treatment and Research. Gençlik ve Cinsellik [Youth and Sexuality]. 2007, May 8. In www.cetad.org.tr. Retrieved from http://www.cetad.org.tr/yayinlar/list/43/genclik-ve-cinsellik [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Association of Population Science. Gençlerde Cinsel Sağlık ve Üreme Sağlığı Araştırması, Türkiye 2007 [Sexual Health and Reproductive Health Research in Youth, Turkey 2007]. 2007, December. In www.nd.org.tr. Retrieved from http://www.nd.org.tr/images/other/245.pdf [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Barbarasoğlu, Fatma Karabıyık. Şov ve Mahrem [Show and Privacy]. İstanbul: Timaş Yayınları, 2006.

  • Baban, Feyzi. “Secular spaces and religious representations: reading the headscarf debate in Turkey as citizenship politics.” Citizenship Studies, 18:6-7 (2014), 644-660. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13621025.2013.865900

  • Bayatlı, Osman. Bergama’da Alevi Gelini ve İnançları [Alevi Bride and Faiths in Bergama]. İzmir: Teknik Kitan ve Mecmua, 1957.

  • Bayhan, Vehbi. “Gençlik ve postmodern kimlik örüntüleri üniversite gençliğinin sosyolojik profili (İnönü üniversitesi uygulaması) [Youth and Postmodern Identity Pattern Sociological Profile of University Youth (Inonu Unıversity Case)].” Gençlik Araştırmaları Dergisi [Journal of Youth Studies], 1:1 (2013), 134-157.

  • Berger, Peter L. “Secularization Falsified.” 2008, February. In www.firstthings.com Retrieved from https://www.firstthings.com/article/2008/02/secularization-falsified [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Bozkurt, Fuat. “State-Community Relations in the Restructuring of Alevism.” In Alevi Identity, edited by Tord Olson, Elisabeth Özdalga & Catharina Raudvere, 85-96. Istanbul: Swedish Research Institute, 2005.

  • Brown, Ann Denise, Jejeebhoy, Shireen, Shah, Iqbal Hussain, & Yount, Kathryn M. “Sexual relations among young people in developing countries; evidence from WHO case studies report.” Geneva: World Health Organization, 2001 January. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/66836/1/WHO_RHR_01.8.pdf [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Bruce, Steve. “Modernisation, Religious Diversity and Rational Choice in Eastern Europe.” Religion, State and Society, 27: 3-4 (1999), 265-275. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/096374999106476

  • Bruce, Steve. “Secularisation, Church and Popular Religion”. The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 62:3 (2011), 543-561. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022046909992715

  • Bruce, Steve. Secularization. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

  • Casanova, José. Public Religions in the Modern World. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 1994.

  • Cinar, Menderes. “Turkey’s Transformation Under the AKP Rule.” The Muslim World, 96:3 (2006), 469-486. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • CNN Turk. “Mirgün Cabas’la Her Şey [Everything with Mirgün Cabas].” 2017, July 16. In www.cnnturk.com. Retrieved from http://www.cnnturk.com/tv-cnn-turk/programlar/her-sey/her-sey-16-temmuz-2015 [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Çarkoğlu, Ali & Toprak, Binnaz. Religion, Society and Politics in a Changing Turkey. Translated by Çiğdem Aksoy Fromm. İstanbul: TESEV, 2007.

  • Çayıroğlu, Yüksel. “Modern Zamanlarda Ailevi Çözülmenin Psiko-Sosyal Dinamikleri [The Psycho - Sociological Dynamics of Dissolution of Family in the Modern Age].” Mehir Aile, 3 (2016), 11-40.

  • Çelik, Celaleddin. İsim Kültürü ve Din [Name Culture and Religion]. İstanbul: Çizgi Publishing, 2005.

  • Çelikoğlu, Nalan. Türkiye’de Üniversite Gençliğinde Mahremiyetin Dönüşümü [The transformation of mahrem (privacy) among univesity students in Turkey]. Master thesis. Marmara University, 2007.

  • Çetin, Adnan. “Bir Kavramın Kısa Tarihi: Mahalle Baskısı [A Brief History of a Concept: ‘Peer Pressure’].” Mukaddime, 2:1 (2010), 81-92.

  • Davie, Grace. Europe: The Exceptional Case. London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 2002.

  • Dinçer, Özüm. Namus ve Bekâret: Kuşaklar Arasında Değişen Ne? İki Kuşaktan Kadınların Cinsellik Algıları [Virtue and Virginity: What Is the Difference between Generations?]. Master thesis. Ankara University, 2007. Retrieved from http://ulusaltezmerkezi.com/namus-ve-bekaret-kusaklar-arasinda-degisen-ne-iki-kusaktan-kadinlarin-cinsellik-algilari/62/

  • Dressler, Markus. “Religio-Secular Metamorphoses: Re-Making of Turkish Alevism.” Journal of American Academy of Religion, 76:2 (2008), 280-311. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jaarel/lfn033

  • Doğruel, Fulya & Leman, Johan. “‘Conduct’ and ‘Counter-conduct’ on the Southern Border of Turkey: Multicultural Antakya.” Middle Eastern Studies, 45:4 (2009), 593-610. DOI: 10.1080/00263200903009650

  • Eke, Nurcan Pınar. Bedene müdahalenin bir yolu olarak moda ve medyada sunulan beden algısı [The Fashion as a Way of the Intervention for Body and the Perception of Body Presented in Media]. Docoral thesis. Selçuk University, 2013.

  • Erdem, Muharrem. Secrets and Revelations: An Ethnographic Study of the Nusayr community in the Karaduvar District of Mersin. Master thesis. Middle East Technical University, 2010.

  • Erdemir, Aykan. Incorporating Alevis: The Transformation of Governance and Faith Based Collective Action in Turkey. Doctoral thesis. Harvard University, 2004.

  • Erdentuğ, Nermin. Türkiye Türk Toplumlarında kültürel antropolojik (etnolojik) incelemeler [Cultural anthropological (ethnological) examinations in Turkish Turkish societies]. Ankara: Ankara University Publishing, 1972.

  • Erdoğan, İlker. “Erkek Dergilerinde (Men’s Health-FHM-Esquire-GQ Türkiye Örneğinde) İdeal(leştirilen) Erkek(lik) İmajının İçerik Çözümlemesi [A Content Analysis of Ideal(ized) Masculin(ity)’s Image in Men’s Magazines (A Sample of Men’s Health-FHM-Esquire-GQ Turkey)].” Journal of Akdeniz University Communication Faculty, 10: 20 (2013), 140-164.

  • Erkan, Rüstem. “Türkiye’de ve Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesinde Boşanma [Divorce in Turkey and Southeastern Anatolia Region].” In Tüm Yönleriyle Boşanma [All Aspects Related to Divorce], edited by Sabri Eyigün, Ramazan Günay, Ömer Ergün & Hatip Yıldız, 11-20. Diyarbakır: Dicle University, 2013.

  • Ertit, Volkan. Endişeli Muhafazakarlar Çağı [The Age of Anxious Conservatives]. Ankara: Orient Publishing, 2015.

  • Ertit, Volkan. Secularization of Alevis in Turkey. An Extension of Steve Bruce’s Secularization Paradigm and Its Application to Alevi Communities in Turkey. Doctoral thesis. Radboud University, 2017. Retrieved from http://repository.ubn.ru.nl/bitstream/handle/2066/168473/168473.pdf [last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Ertit, Volkan. “Secularization: The Decline of the Supernatural.” Religions, 9:4 (2018), 92. DOI: 10.3390/rel9040092

  • Fırat, Kamil. “Ankara’da Bir Alan Araştırması: Aleviliğin ve Dinsel Kimliğin Alevilerce Algılanması [A Field Survey in Ankara: The Alevi Perception of Alevism and Religious Identity].” Kırkbudak, 1:1 (2005), 50-69.

  • General Directorate of Population and Citizenship Affairs. “İsim İstatistikleri [Name Statistics].” 2016, October 10. In www.nvi.org.tr. Retrieved from https://www.nvi.gov.tr/hizmetlerimiz/istatistikler/isim-istatistikleri [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • General Directorate of Sport. “Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı ile Spor Genel Müdürülüğü arasındaki Protokol [Cooperation Protocol between the Directorate of Religious Affairs and the Directorate General of Sports].” In http://sgm.gsb.gov.tr/ Retrieved from https://sgm.gsb.gov.tr/Public/Edit/images/SGM/Mevzuat/Protokoller/D%C4%B0YANET%20PROTOKOL.pdf [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Glock, Charles.Y. “On the Study of Religious Commitment.” Religious Education, 57:S4 (1962), 98-110. DOI: 10.1080/003440862057S407

  • Gökarıksel, Banu & Secor, Anna J. “‘Even I Was Tempted’: The Moral Ambivalence and Ethical Practice of Veiling-Fashion in Turkey.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 102:4 (2011), 847-862. DOI: 10.1080/00045608.2011.601221

  • Gökarıksel, Banu & Secor, Anna J. “Islam on the Catwalk: Marketing Veiling-Fashion in Turkey.” In The Changing World Religion Map, edited by Stanley D. Brunn, 2581-2595. Dordrecht: Springer, 2015.

  • Gündoğdu, Yusuf Bahri. “Seçmeli Din Dersleri Neden Tercih Edilmiyor? (Ordu İli Örneği) [Why Elective Religion Courses Are Not Preferred? (The Case of Ordu Province)].” Journal of Divinity Faculty of Hitit University, 16:32 (2017). 557-582.

  • Gür, Bekir. S. & Kurt, Türker. “Türkiye’de Ailelerin Eğitim İhtiyaçları [Educational Needs of Families in Turkey].” Family and Society, 7:27 (2011), 33-62.

  • Güven, Ahmet. “Gezi’nin Dili: Göstergebilimsel Bir İnceleme [The Language of Taksim Gezi Park Protests: A Semiotic Review].” Human & Human, 2 (2014), 19-29.

  • Haber55. “Eşcinseller Samsun’da 3. Onur Yürüyüşü yaptı [The homosexuals performed the 3rd Honor Walk in Samsun].” 2016, June 20. In www.haber55.com. Retrieved from http://www.haber55.com/escinseller-samsunda-3.-onur-yuruyusuduzenledi/ [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Haber Turk. “Alevi Hukuku Yargıdan Döndü [The judiciary ignored the Alawi law].” 2010, July 7. In www.haberturk.com. Retrieved from http://www.haberturk.com/yasam/haber/530031-alevi-hukuku-yargidan-dondu [last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Haber Turk. “Devlet Onaylı Ateizm Derneği [Association of Atheism Approved by the State].” 2015, February 26. In www.haberturk.com. Retrieved from http://www.haberturk.com/yasam/haber/940892-devlet-onayli-ateizm-dernegi [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Hurriyet Daily News. “Turkish brewer says rise in homebrewed beer is hitting sales.” 2018, February 01. In http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com. Retrieved from http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-brewer-says-rise-in-homebrewedbeer- is-hitting-sales-126643 [last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Hürriyet. “İstanbul’da Sıradışı Bir Düğün [An Extraordinary Wedding in Istanbul].” 2014, September 25. In www.hurriyet.com. Retrieved from http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/istanbul-da-siradisi-bir-dugun-duzen-karsisinda-gizlenmedik-27260988 [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Hürriyet. “Murat Boz Meme Küçültme Ameliyatı Oldu [Murat Boz Got Breast Reduction Surgery].” 2016, March 2. In www.hurriyet.com.tr. Retrieved from http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/murat-boz-gogus-kucultme-ameliyati-oldu-40062706 [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Iftar with Nihat Hatipoğlu. “Erkekler Dar Pantolon Giymemelidir [Men should not wear Narrow Pants].” 2017, June 6. In ATV. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JMdoGOnfBH0 [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Kalav, Ayşe. “Namus ve Toplumsal Cinsiyet [Purity and Gender].” Mediterranean Journal of Humanities, II/2 (2012), 151-163. Retrieved from http://mjh.akdeniz.edu.tr/_dinamik/201/406.pdf [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Kaos GL. “Malatya’da LGBTİ Onur Yürüyüşü [LGBTI Honor Walk in Malatya].” 2014, June 12. In www.kaosgl.org. Retrieved from http://kaosgl.org/sayfa.php?id=16832 [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Karaarslan, Faruk. “Kitap Kritiği: Endişeli Muhafazakarlar Çağı [Book Review: The Age of Anxious Conservatives]. Journal of Human & Society, 4:9 (2015), 151-155.

  • Karaaslan, Selda. 1980 Sonrası Türk Toplumunda Din Eksenli Dönüşümlerin Kadın Kıyafetlerinin Değişimine Yansımaları [Reflections of religious-based social changes on woman clothes in Turkish society after 1980]. Master thesis. Marmara University, 2010.

  • Kazemipur, Abdolmohammad & Rezaei, Ali. “Religious Life under Theocracy: The Case of Iran.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42:3 (2003), 347-361.

  • Koç, İsmet, Eryurt, Mehmet Ali, Adalı, Tuğba, Seçkiner, Pelin. Türkiye’nin Demografik Dönüşümü, Doğurganlık, Anne-Çocuk Sağlığı ve Beş Yaş Altı Ölümlerdeki Değişimler:1968-2008 [Turkey’s demographic transformation, Fertility, Mother-Child Health and Changes in Mortality for Under Five: 1968-2008]. Ankara: Hacettepe University Institute of Population Studies.

  • Köse, Ali. Laik ama Kutsal [Laic but Sacred]. İstanbul: Nesil Publishing, 2006.

  • Lotfi, Alireza, Kabiri, Sabour & Ghasemlou, Hojjat. “Değerler Değişimi ve Kuşaklararası Çatışma: İran Khoy Kenti Örneği [Conflict and Change Across Generations: The Khoy Case].” Eskişehir Osmangazi University Journal of Social Sciences, 14:2 (2013), 93-113.

  • Manço, Ural. “Corporéités, ascétismes et sécularisation dans le discours de la confrérie Naqshbandi turque contemporaine [Corporeity, asceticism and secularization in the speech of the contemporary Turkish Naqshbandi brotherhood].” Social Compass, 57: 4 (2010), 479-492.

  • Milliyet. “Boyner’in Kürtaj Çıkışına Arınç’tan Azar [Boyner was scolded by Arınç on abortion].” 2012, June 15. In www.milliyet.com.tr. Retrieved from http://siyaset.milliyet.com.tr/boyner-in-kurtaj-cikisina-arinc-tan-azar/siyaset/siyasetdetay/15.06.2012/1554183/default.htm [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Ministry of Family and Social Policies. Türkiye’de Aile Yapısı Araştırması 2011 [Family Structure Research in Turkey 2011]. Ankara, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.cocukhaklariizleme.org/wp-content/uploads/turkiyenin-aile-yapisiarastirmasi-20111.pdf [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Meşe, İlknur. “Tüketim, Din ve Kadın Bağlamında İslami Moda Dergileri [Veiling Fashion Magazines in Context Concepts of Consumption, Religion, and Woman].” Journal of Social Sciences Eskisehir Osmangazi University, 17:1 (2016), 95-110.

  • National Education Statistics 2015/’16. Retrieved from http://sgb.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2016_03/18024009_meb_istatistikleri_orgun_egitim_2015_2016.pdf [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Norris, Pippa & Inglehart, Ronald. Sacred and Secular, Religion and Politics Worldwide. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

  • NTV. “Erdoğan Kürtaj Cinayettir [Erdoğan: Abortion is murder].” 2012, May 25. In www.ntv.com.tr. Retrieved from https://www.ntv.com.tr/turkiye/erdogan-kurtaj-cinayettir,VgwTjJiEyEuq-9Qcqqy6Ag [last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Onedio. Türkiye’nin ilk “eşcinsel youtube çifti” [Turkey’s first YouTube “gay couple”]. 2017, April 12. In https://onedio.com. Retrieved from https://onedio.com/haber/turkiye-nin-ilk-escinsel-youtube-cifti-merak-edilenleri-anlatmaya-devamediyor- ilk-bulusma-ve-ailelerin-tanismasi-766307 [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Ozan, Ömer. Din Görevlisinin Toplumsal İmajını Etkileyen Faktörler (Samsun Örneği) [Factors affecting the image of religious officials (Sample of Samsun)]. Master thesis. Ondokuzmayıs University, 2013.

  • Ozan, S., Aras S., Semin S., Orcin E. “Sexual attitudes and behaviors among medical students in Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey.” The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, 10:3 (2005), 171-183. DOI: 10.1080/13625180500282205

  • Öniş, Ziya & Yılmaz, Şuhnaz. “Between Europeanization and Euro-Asianism: Foreign Policy Activism in Turkey during the AKP Era.” Turkish Studies, 10:1 (2009), 7-24. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14683840802648562

  • Özbolat, Abdullah. “Hutbelerde Söylem Değişimi - Diyanet Hutbeleri Örneği [Change in Discourse in the Sermons the Case of Sermons of Presidency of Religious Affairs].” The Journal of International Social Research, 7:29 (2014), 662-679.

  • Özcan, Yusuf Ziya. “Ülkemizdeki Cami Sayıları Üzerine Sayısal Bir İnceleme [A Quantitative Study of Mosques in Turkey].” Journal of Islamic Research, 4:1 (1990), 5-20.

  • Öztürk, Akif. “Eril Bedenselleşme: Hegemonik Erkek Bedeninin İnşası [Male Embodiment: The Construction of the Hegemonic Male Body].” Journal of Philosophy and Social Sciences, 12 (2012), 39-53.

  • Presidency of Religious Affairs. “Cami Sayısı İstatistikleri [Statistics on Mosques].” 2016, December 31. In www.diyanet.gov.tr. Retrieved from http://www.diyanet.gov.tr/tr-TR/Kurumsal/Detay//6/diyanet-isleri-baskanligi-istatistikleri [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Sabah. “Diyanet’ten Kürtaj Açıklaması [Declaration on Abortion by Religious Presidency].” 2012, June 4. In www.sabah.com.tr Retrieved from http://www.sabah.com.tr/gundem/2012/06/04/diyanetten-kurtaj-aciklamasi [last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Sabah. “Kıvanç Fit bir vücut için altı ay çalıştı [Kıvanç worked for a fit body for six months].” 2014, January 20. In www.sabah.com.tr. Retrieved from http://www.sabah.com.tr/magazin/2014/01/20/kivanc-fit-bir-vucut-icin-alti-ay-calisti [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Sağır, Adem. “Endişeli Muhafazakarlar Çağı’na Bir Prolegomena [A Prolegomena to The Age of Anxious Conservatives]. Journal of the Human and Social Science Researches, 4:3 (2015), 791-809.

  • Sarmış, Mustafa. “Hollywood Sinemasının Sekülerleşme Stratejisi [Secularization Strategy of Hollywood]. In Full-Text Book of Symposium on Global Politics and Cinema, edited by Hüseyin Türkan, 49-65. İstanbul: UHIM, 2017.

  • Semerdjian, Elyse. “Zinah”. In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

  • Süleymanov, Abulfez. “Çağdaş Türk Toplumlarında Aile ve Evlilik İlişkileri [Family and Marrige Relations in Modern Turkish Societies].” Journal of Social Policy Conferences, 58 (2010), 197-216. Retrieved from http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/198190 [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Şener, Cemal. Şamanizm / Türklerin İslamiyet’ten Önceki Dini [Shamanism / Pre-Islamic Religion of Turks]. İstanbul: Etik Publishing, 2001.

  • T24. “Son 11 yılda 8 bin 743 cami ibadete açıldı [8 thousand 743 mosques were built in the last 11 years].” 2013, July 15. In www.t24.com.tr. Retrieved from http://t24.com.tr/haber/cami-sayisi-katlanarak-artti,234351 [last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Taylan, Hasan Hüseyin & Danış, Yasemin. “Sosyal Değişme ve Türkiye’de Boşanma Olgusu [Divorce in Turkey and Social Change].” Mehir Aile, 3 (2016), 41-57.

  • Taylor, Charles. “Two Theories of Modernity.” The Hastings Center Report, 25:2 (1995): 24-33.

  • Toprak, Binnaz, Bozan, İrfan, Morgül, Tan & Şener, Nedim. Being Different in Turkey, Research Report on Neighbourhood Pressure. Istanbul: Boğaziçi University & Open Society Foundation, 2009.

  • Turkish Statistical Institute. İstatistik Göstergeler 1923-2009 [Statistical Indicators 1923-2009].” Ankara: TÜİK Publishing, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.tuik.gov.tr/yillik/Ist_gostergeler.pdf [last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Turkish Statistical Institute. “Adrese Dayalı Nüfus Kayıt Sistemi Sonuçları 2016 [Results of Address Based Population Registration System].” 2017 January 31. In www.tuik.gov.tr. Retrieved from http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=24638 [last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Turkish Statistical Institute. “Evlenme ve Boşanma İstatistikleri [Marriage and Divorce Statistics].” 2017, March 02. In www.tuik.gov.tr. Retrieved from http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=24642 [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • The Economist. “Islâm and Homosexuality, Straight but Narrow.” 2012, February 4. In www.economist.com. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/node/21546002 [last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Tüzer, Verda. “İnternet, Siberseks ve Sadakatsizlik [Internet, Cybersex and Infidelity].” Current Approaches in Psychiatry, 3:1 (2011), 100-116. Retrieved from http://www.cappsy.org/archives/vol3/no1/cap_03_05.pdf [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Yavuz, Emrah. “Köy İmamlarının Görev Yaptıkları Yerleşim Biriminin Fiziki ve Sosyokültürel Yapısından Kaynaklanan Problemleri Üzerine Sosyolojik Bir İnceleme-Kayseri Pınarbaşı Örneği [A Sociological Review On The Problems Caused By Physical And Sociocultural Structures Of Settlements That The Imams Of The VillageWork - Case Of Kayseri Pınarbaşı].” Religious Studies, 18:47 (2015), 172-197.

  • Yıkmış, Meral Salman. Hacı Bektaş Veli’nin Evlatları, “Yol”un Mürşitleri Ulusoy Ailesi [Ulusoy Family, Descendants of Hacı Bektaş Veli]. İstanbul: İletişim Publishing, 2014.

  • Yıldız, M. Cengiz. “Türkiye’de Töre Baskısına Bağlı İntiharlar ve Töre Cinayetleri [The Custom Murders and Suicides Dependent on Custom Compulsion in Turkey].” Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of Social Sciences, 9:16 (2008), 209-231.

  • Yıldız, Süleyman Murat & Tüfekçi, Özlem. “Fitness Merkezi Müşterilerinin Hizmet Kalitesine Yönelik Beklenti ve Algılarının Değerlendirilmesi [Assessment of Expectations and Perceptions of Fitness Center Customers for Service Quality].” Balikesir University The Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 13:24 (2010), 1-11. Retrieved from http://sbe.balikesir.edu.tr/dergi/edergi/c13s24/makale/c13s24mk.pdf [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Yılmaz, Hakan. “Türkiye’de Muhafazakârlık. Aile, Cinsellik ve Din [Conservatism, Family, Sexuality and Religion in Turkey].” 2012, August. In www.aciktoplumvakfi.org.tr. Retrieved from http://www.aciktoplumvakfi.org.tr/pdf/muhafazakarlik/04.pdf [Last visited 11/04/2018]

  • Yılmaz, Nail. Kentin Alevileri [Urbanized Alevis]. İstanbul: Kitapevi Publishing, 2005.

  • Yılmaz, Sinan. Türk Ailesinin Dönüşümü ve Din [Transition of Turkish Family and Religion]. Doctoral thesis. Marmara University, 2008.

  • Yılmaz, Volkan. “Yeni Anayasa Sürecinde LGBTİ Hakları Hareketi’nin Eşit Yurttaşlık Mücadelesi: Çoğunlukçu Demokrasiye Karşı Anayasal Demokrasi [Fight for Equal Citizenship by the LGBTI Rights Movement in the New Constitution Process: Constitutional Democracy Against Majority Democracy].” In Farklılıkların Birlikteliği [Coexistence of Differences], edited by Ayhan Kaya, 169-181. İstanbul: Hiperlink, 2014.

  • Zeidan, David. “The Alevi of Anatolia.” Middle East Review of International Affairs, 3:4 (1999), 74-89.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Open Theology is an international Open Access, peer-reviewed academic journal that welcomes contributions written in English addressing religion in its various forms and aspects: historical, theological, sociological, psychological, and other.

Search