For two and a half centuries, the „Schottenkloster“ („Scots monastery“) in Vienna, founded in 1155, belonged to the union of Irish „Schottenklöster“, which was characterized by its ethnic unity. Given the choice of either accepting native Benedictine monks or giving up the abbey, the Irish left Vienna in 1418. The ensuing historiography accused the Irish monks of incompetence, misconduct and deficiencies of character – an assessment that has lingered until the present. The paper considers the accusations of linguistic incapacity and explores the extent to which the Viennese Irish in fact constituted a foreign body that failed because of its unwillingness to integrate and live together with others. At the same time, it examines the role of these „Scottish“ monks in the religious, economic and political life of the city and the country, as well as their relations with the court, the urban population and other religious institutions. After evaluating the reliability of the main source of all these accusations, the „Memoriale reformacionis ad Scotos“, it attempts to determine the true reasons for the departure of the Irish.