Analysis of Deterioration Phenomena in a Koran by Nineteenth Century Ottoman Calligrapher Mehmed Şevki

  • 1 Sakıp Sabancı Museum, Emirgan Mahallesi, Sakıp Sabancı Cd. No.42, 34467 Sarıyer/İstanbul, Turkey
  • 2 Istanbul Technical University, ITU Arts & Sciences Fac. Chemistry Dep. Maslak, 34469, Istanbul, Turkey
  • 3 Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, “Ss Cyril and Methodius” University, Arhimedova 5, 1000, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
  • 4 Nanotechnology Research and Application Center, Sabancı University, 34956 İstanbul, Tuzla, Turkey
Nurçin Kural Özgörüş
  • Corresponding author
  • Sakıp Sabancı Museum, Emirgan Mahallesi, Sakıp Sabancı Cd. No.42, 34467 Sarıyer/İstanbul, Turkey
  • Email
  • Further information
  • Nurçin Kural Özgörüş currently works as paper and book conservator at Sabancı University Sakıp Sabancı Museum, and as a lecturer in preventive conservation at the Turkish Traditional Arts Bookbinding Department, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University. After completing her bachelor’s degree in Chemistry at the Istanbul Technical University, she studied paper conservation in Palazzo Spinelli, Istituto per L’arte e Il Restauro in Florence, Italy. She is currently working on her thesis in MA program at the Turkish Traditional Arts Bookbinding Department Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University. Her main interest is the conservation and research of Ottoman manuscripts and documents in the Arts of Book and Calligraphy collection of Sakıp Sabancı Museum. E-mail: nurcin@sabanciuniv.edu
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
, Cüneyt H. ÜnlüORCID iD: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7337-9697
  • Istanbul Technical University, ITU Arts & Sciences Fac. Chemistry Dep. Maslak, Istanbul, 34469, Turkey
  • orcid.org/0000-0001-7337-9697
  • Email
  • Further information
  • Cüneyt H. Ünlü is a researcher at Istanbul Technical University Chemistry Department. He received his PhD degree at the Istanbul Technical University in 2010, on the subject of polymer/clay nanocomposite synthesis using polysaccharides. His research area covers recovery, characterization, and modification of polysaccharides, polymer/clay nanocomposites, and surface active materials. He also gives lectures on General Chemistry, Introduction to Scientific Computing, and Characterization of Organic Compounds. E-mail: unlucu@gmail.com
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
, Orhideja Grupče
  • Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, “Ss Cyril and Methodius” University, Arhimedova 5, 1000, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
  • Email
  • Further information
  • Orhideja Grupče is Professor of Analytical and Instrumental Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry at the Faculty of Natural Sciences & Mathematics, University “St Cyril & Methodius”, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. Her research and expertise is in the field of Molecular Spectroscopy as application of IR spectroscopy of solids: polymorphs of thioimides, IR and Raman spectra-structure correlation as well as structure determination of saccharine salts and complexes by X-ray diffraction. Special interest in application of IR and Raman spectroscopy in characterization of cultural heritage objects - manuscripts, icons, pottery. E-mail: orceg@yahoo.com
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
, Feray Bakan
  • Nanotechnology Research and Application Center, Sabancı University, Tuzla, 34956 İstanbul, Turkey
  • Email
  • Further information
  • Feray Bakan received her PhD degree in Chemical Engineering from Ataturk University, Turkey in 2011, followed by working in the Physics Department, Sabancı University as a post-doctoral fellow. She is currently employed as a researcher at Sabancı University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center (SUNUM). Her academic studies mainly include bioceramic nanomaterials’ synthesis and their broad range health-related applications, from bone fracture healing to drug delivery. E-mail: feraybakan@sabanciuniv.edu
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
and Meltem Sezen
  • Nanotechnology Research and Application Center, Sabancı University, Tuzla, 34956 İstanbul, Turkey
  • Email
  • Further information
  • Meltem Sezen completed her PhD degree at Graz University of Technology, Institute for Electron Microscopy, in Austria in 2009. In the following two years, she completed her postdoctoral research at Center of Electron Microscopy (Felmi-Zfe) in Graz, Austria. She is currently employed as an Assistant Professor at Sabancı University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center (SUNUM). Her main academic research areas include nanostructuring and nanofabrication using focused ion and electron beams, advanced electron microscopy techniques, surface modification at nanometer scale and organic/ceramic materials processing. E-mail: meltemsezen@sabanciuniv.edu
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar

Abstract

A Koran written by Mehmed Şevki is the subject of this comparative analysis. This manuscript displayed an extensive degree of deterioration in 28 of the folios, while the rest of the manuscript is in considerably better condition. The aforementioned deteriorated sections of the book proved to be brittle and much darker in colour compared to the rest of this manuscript. The possible cause for this condition was ascertained using complementary techniques including the utilisation of micro-chemical (spot) tests, SEM-EDS, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The Micro-chemical Herzberg test indicated rag fibres in the paper used for the Koran, while the Raspail test #1 revealed rosin only in the sizing material of the deteriorated folios. SEM-EDS identified the presence of iron in all layers of the deteriorated folios but not in the stable folios. These results led subsequently to the conclusion that the deterioration of the folios was in fact related to the acid-catalysed hydrolysis due mainly to the presence of rosin and oxidation processes promoted by iron ions. This finding was also supported by FTIR analysis. The analyses indicated that different sizing materials had been used in the papermaking process of the two types of folios. In addition, Raman, EDS and HPLC techniques were also applied for the characterization of the inks and dyes. The results showed that inks and dyes were consistent throughout the entire text, thus suggesting calligrapher Mehmed Şevki and illuminator Hüseyin processed the book continually. It is plausible that calligrapher Mehmed Şevki changed his paper supply during the writing process which is why today we see a variety of differences in the condition of the papers.

  • Barrow, W. J.: Spot Testing for the unstable modern book and record papers. Permanence/Durability of the Book – VI. Richmond, VA: W.J. Barrow Research Laboratory, Inc., 1969.

  • Bell, I. M., Clark, R. J. H., Gibbs, P. J.: Raman spectroscopic library of natural and synthetic pigments (pre- ~1850 AD). Spectrochim. Acta A 53 (1997): 2159–2179.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bilen, Y.: Hattat Mehmed Şevki Efendi’nin Terekesinde Bulunan Mektuplar Üzerine Değerlendirmeler. [Interpretations on the Letters in the Heirlooms of Calligrapher Mehmed Şevki]. Journal of Ataturk University, Institute of Fine Arts 29 (2012): 49–81.

  • Blair, S.: Islamic Calligraphy. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008.

  • Bosch, G., Petherbridge, G.: The materials, techniques and structures of islamic bookmaking. Catalogue of Exhibition: Islamic Bindings & Bookmaking, 1981: 23–84.

  • Brückle, I.: The role of alum in historical papermaking. Abbey Newsletter 17 (1993): 4.

  • Burgio, L., Clark, R. J. H.: Library of FT-Raman spectra of pigments, minerals, pigment media and varnishes, and supplement to existing library of Raman spectra of pigments with visible excitation. Spectrochim, Acta A 57 (2001): 1491–1521.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Burgio, L., Clark, R. J. H., Muralha, V. S. F., Stanley, T.: Pigment analysis by Raman microscopy of the non-figurative illumination in 16th to 18th century Islamic manuscripts. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 39 (2008): 1482–1493.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Calvini, P., Gorassini, A.: FTIR – Deconvolution spectra of paper documents. Restaurator. International Journal for the Preservation of Library and Archival Material 23 (2002): 48–66.

  • Calvini, P., Gorassini, A.: The degrading action of iron and copper on paper. A FTIR-deconvolution analysis. Restaurator. International Journal for the Preservation of Library and Archival Material 23 (2008): 205–221.

  • Casey, J.: Pulp and paper. Chemistry and chemical technology, 2nd ed. New York: Interscience Publishers, 1961: 277–278.

  • Csefalvayová, L., Havlínová, B., Čeppan, M., Jakubíková, Z.: The influence of iron gall ink on paper ageing. Restaurator. International Journal for the Preservation of Library and Archival Material 28(2), (2007): 129–139.

  • Daniels, V.: The Chemistry of Iron Gall Ink. In: The Iron Gall Ink meeting: 4th & 5th September 2000, the University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne: postprints, A. J. E. Brown (ed.), Newcastle upon Tyne: Conservation of Fine Art, University of Northumbria, 2000: 31–36.

  • Derman, M. U.: Mehmed Şevki Efendi. TDV İslam Ansiklopedisi [TDV Encyclopedia Islamica] 28 (2003): 532–533.

  • Derman, M. U.: Mehmed Şevki Efendi. In: Masterpieces of Ottoman Calligraphy from the Sakıp Sabancı Museum, Istanbul: Sakıp Sabancı Museum, 2004: 156–157.

  • Déroche, F.: The writing surface: Paper, Islamic Codicology, an Introduction to the Study of Manuscripts in Arabic Script, 2006: 49–63.

  • Deveoglu, O., Torgan, E., Karadag, R.: Characterization of colouring matters by HPLC-DAD and colour measurements, preparation of lake pigments with ararat kermes (Porphyrophora hameli Brand). Jordan Journal of Chemistry 5(3), (2010): 307–315.

  • Filho, G. R., Monteiro, D. S., Meireles, C. D. S., De Assunção, R. M. N., Cerqueira, D. A., Barud, H. S., Ribeiro, S. J. L., Messadeq, Y.: Synthesis and characterization of cellulose acetate produced from recycled newspaper. Carbohydrate Polymers 73 (2008): 74–82.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Gorassini, A., Calvini, P., Baldin, A.: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of historic paper documents as a preliminary step for chemometrical analysis. In: Italy: CMA4CH 2nd Mediterraneum meeting on multivariate analysis and chemometry for cultural heritage and environment, Vol. 2, Torino, 2008: 47–48.

  • İbrahim, N.: editing Rifat, K.M.: Gülzarı Savab [Beauty of Script]. Istanbul: Fine Arts Academy Publications, 1938: 76–85.

  • İnal, İ. M. K.: Son Hattatlar. [The Last Calligraphers]. Istanbul: Maarif, 1955: 397–399.

  • Loveday, H.: Islamic paper. A study of the ancient craft. London: Archetype Publications, 2001: 29–54.

  • Manente, S., Micheluz, A., Ganzerla, R., Ravagnan, G., Gambaro, A.: Chemical and biological characterization of paper: A case study using a proposed methodological approach. International Biodeterior Biodegrad 74 (2012): 99–108.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Mathlouthi, M., Koenig, J. L.: Vibrational spectra of carbohydrates. Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry 44 (1987): 7–89.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Neevel, J. G., Mensch, C. T. J.: The behaviour of iron and sulphuric acid during iron gall ink corrosion. In: 12th ICOM-CC Triennial Meeting, Lyon 29 Aug-3 Sept, Preprints J. Bridgeland and J. Brown (eds) James & James, 1999: 528–533.

  • Oh, S. Y., Yoo, D. I., Shin, Y., Kim, H. C., Kim, H. Y., Chung, Y. S., Park, W. H., Youk, J. H.: Crystalline structure analysis of cellulose treated with sodium hydroxide and carbon dioxide by means of X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Carbohydrate Research 340(15), (2005): 2376–2391.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Oh, S. Y., Yoo, D. I., Shin, Y., Seo, G.: FTIR analysis of cellulose treated with sodium hydroxide and carbon dioxide. Carbohydrate Research 340(3), (2005a): 417–428.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Özen, M. E.: Vassale. In: Yazma Kitap Sanatları Sözlüğü, İstanbul: İstanbul Üniversitesi, Fen Fakültesi, 1985: 76.

  • Šelih, V. S., Strlič, M., Kolar, J., Pihlar, B.: The role of transition metals in oxidative degradation of cellulose. Polymer Degradation and Stability 92 (2007): 1476–1481.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Sistach, M. C.: Metodos para identificar colas, fibras y otros elementos [Methods to identify adhesives, fibres and other elements]. Postprints of the Cuartas Jornadas de Avances en la Restauración de Papel. Monasterio de Santa Maria de la Vid (2002).

  • Strlič, M., Kolar, J.: Ageing and stabilization of paper, National and University Library, Ljubljana, Slovenia (2005): 13–14.

  • Strlič, M., Kolar, J., Kočar, D., Drnovšek, T., Šelih, V. S., Susic, R., Pihlar, B.: What is the pH of alkaline paper?. e-Preservation Science 1 (2004): 35–47.

  • Strlič, M., Kolar, J., Pihlar, B.: Methodology and analytical techniques in paper stability studies. In: Ageing and Stabilisation of Paper, M. Strlič and J. Kolar (eds), Ljubljana: National and University Library, 2005: 27–44.

  • Sundar, S. T., Sain, M. M., Oksman, K.: Characterization of microcrystalline cellulose and cellulose long fibre modified by iron salt. Carbohydrate Polymers 80 (2010): 35–43.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Tanındı, Z., Kilercik, A. A.: Sakıp Sabancı museum collection of the arts of the book and calligraphy. Published by Sakıp Sabancı Museum, Istanbul, 2012: 72–73.

  • Ünlü, C. H.: Carboxymethylcellulose from recycled newspaper in aqueous medium. Carbohydrate Polymers 97 (2013): 159–164.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Wendler Bainbridge, A.: Non-destructive analysis of selective discolouration in two seventeenth century codices. Journal of the Institute of Conservation 38 (2015): 3–13.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Zhbankov, R. G.: Infrared Spectra of Cellulose and its Derivatives. US: Springer, 1995.

Purchase article
Get instant unlimited access to the article.
$42.00
Log in
Already have access? Please log in.


or
Log in with your institution

Journal + Issues

Restaurator is the only international periodical specializing exclusively in the conservation of library and archive materials. Articles examine the many important aspects of this subject area, such as technology, practical experience, and organization. They also address scientific fundamentals, including the development of new preservation techniques and improvements to established methods.

Search