Hydrothermal liquefaction of wood: a critical review

Manoj Kumar Jindalhttp://orcid.org/0000-0003-3922-0935 1  and Mithilesh K. Jha 2
  • 1 Department of Chemical Engineering
  • 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Dr. BR Ambedkar National Institute of Technology
Manoj Kumar JindalORCID iD: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3922-0935
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  • Department of Chemical Engineering
  • orcid.org/0000-0003-3922-0935
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  • Manoj Kumar Jindal received his BE in chemical engineering from the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India, in 1993 and his MTech from Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar, India, in 2009. He is currently pursuing his research under the guidance of Dr. M.K. Jha at the National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India. In 1996, he joined the Chemical Engineering Department of the Government Polytechnic College for Girls, Ropar, Punjab, India. He was a recipient of the Best Polytechnic Teacher Award for Punjab State in 2011. He has published/presented more than 15 papers in international and national journals and conferences. His current research area focuses on the biomass valorization for fuel and chemical production.
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and Mithilesh K. Jha
  • Department of Chemical Engineering, Dr. BR Ambedkar National Institute of Technology
  • Further information
  • Mithilesh K. Jha is currently a Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India. He obtained his bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from Punjab University, Chandigarh, India, and received his MTech and PhD in petroleum engineering from ISM, Dhanbad, India. He has been a recipient of many prestigious awards such as Rajarambapu Patil National Award for Promising Engineering Teacher, Best Engineering College Teacher Award for Punjab State, Young Scientist Fellowship Award, and Jharkhand Ratna Award. He has published/presented more than 50 research papers in international and national journals and conferences. His research is mainly focused on biofuels and wastewater treatment.
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Abstract

This article provides an overview of previous research contributions and the current status of technology on the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of wood biomass into liquid fuels and valuable chemicals. This process involves the direct liquefaction of biomass, which operates from 200°C to 400°C, 5 to 25 MPa, and 10 to 60 min reaction time in hot-compressed water or solvent and with or without a catalyst in the presence of inert or reducing gas. The influence of process variables, including biomass composition, temperature, residence time, pressure, heating rate, particle size, catalysts, and so on, which are significant for the bio-oil yield and product quality, has been addressed in this review. This review focuses on the HTL fundamentals based on current knowledge and summarizes the state-of-the-art knowledge of the HTL of wood biomass.

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