Zika is a vector-borne viral disease transmitted to humans primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The increased climate instability has contributed to the emergence of infections carried by mosquitoes like dengue, chikungunya and zika. While infection with the zika virus is not new, the recent epidemic of microcephaly in Brazil and other countries in South America resulting from the infection of pregnant women with the zika virus raise a number of serious public health concerns. These include the question of how climate change affects the range of zika vectors, what can we do to shorten the length of mosquito season, how and why the symptoms of zika infection have changed and what can be done to reduce the burden of human disease from this infection? Another important question that needs to be answered is what are the factors that caused the zika virus to leave the non-human primates and/or other mammals and invade the human population?
Eppes C, Rac M, Dunn J, Versalovic J, Murray KO, et al. Testing for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: key concepts to deal with an emerging epidemic. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017;216(3):209–25.10.1016/j.ajog.2017.01.02028126366)| false
Zhou H, Eaton B, Hu Z, Arif B. Accidental discovery and isolation of Zika virus in Uganda and the relentless epidemiologist behind the investigations. Virol Sin 2016;31(4):357–61.10.1007/s12250-016-3821-627438084)| false
Bogoch II, Brady OJ, Kraemer MU, German M, Creatore MI, et al. Anticipating the international spread of Zika virus from Brazil. Lancet 2016;387(10016):335–6.10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00080-526777915)| false
Ali S, Gugliemini O, Harber S, Harrison A, Houle L, et al. Environmental and social change drive the explosive emergence of Zika virus in the Americas. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017;11(2):e0005135.2818266710.1371/journal.pntd.0005135)| false
McCracken M, Gromowski G, Friberg H, Lin X, Abbink P, et al. Impact of prior flavivirus immunity on Zika virus infection in rhesus macaques. PLoS Pathog 2017;13(8):e1006487.2877160510.1371/journal.ppat.1006487)| false
Bueno M, Martinez N, Abdalla L, Santos C, Chame M. Animals in the Zika virus life cycle:what to expect from megadiverse Latin American countries. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016;10(12):e0005073.10.1371/journal.pntd.0005073)| false
Vorou R. Zika virus, vectors, reservoirs, amplifying hosts, and their potential to spread worldwide: what we know and what we should investigate urgently. Int J Infect Dis 2016;48:85–90.10.1016/j.ijid.2016.05.01427208633)| false
Gyawali N, Bradbury R, Taylor-Robinson A. The global spread of Zika virus: is public and media concern justified in regions currently unaffected? Infect Dis Poverty 2016;5:37.10.1186/s40249-016-0132-y27093860)| false
Jaenisch T, Rosenberger KD, Brito C, Brady O, Brasil P, et al. Risk of microcephaly after Zika virus infection in Brazil, 2015 to 2016. Bull World Health Organ 2017;95(3):191–8.10.2471/BLT.16.17860828250532)| false
Cao-Lormeau VM, Blake A, Mons S, Lastere S, Roche C, et al. Guillain-Barré syndrome outbreak caused by ZIKA virus infection in French Polynesia. Lancet 2016;387(10027):1531–9.10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00562-6)| false
Gardner L, Chen N, Sarkar S. Vector status of Aedes species determines the geographical risk of autochthonous Zika virus establishment. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017;11(3):e0005487.2833947210.1371/journal.pntd.0005487)| false
Balbus J, Boxall A, Fenske R, Mckone T, Zeise L. Implications of global climate change for the assessment and management of human health risks of chemicals in the natural environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32(1):62–78.
Balbus J, Boxall A, Fenske R, Mckone T, Zeise L. Implications of global climate change for the assessment and management of human health risks of chemicals in the natural environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32(1):62–78.10.1002/etc.204623147420)| false
Cable J, Barber I, Boag B, Ellison A, Morgan E, et al. Global change, parasite transmission and disease control: lessons from ecology. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2017;372(1719):20160088.10.1098/rstb.2016.008828289256)| false
Mills J, Gage K, Khan A. Potential influence of climate change on vector borne and zoonotic diseases: a review and proposed research plan. Environ Health Perspect 2010;118(11):1507–1514.2057658010.1289/ehp.0901389)| false
Waldock J, Chandra N, Lelieveld J, Proestos Y, Michael E, et al. The role of environmental variables on Aedes Albopictus biology and Chikungunya epidemiology. Pathog Glob Health 2013;107(5):224–41.10.1179/2047773213Y.000000010023916332)| false
Xiaoxu Wu, Yongmei Lu, Zhou S, Chen L, Chen L, et al. Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: empirical evidence and human adaptation. Environ Int 2016;86:14–23.10.1016/j.envint.2015.09.00726479830)| false
Lafferty KD, Mordecai EA. The rise and fall of infectious disease in a warmer world. F1000Res 2016;5:F1000.
Matysiak A, Roess A. Interrelationship between climatic, ecologic, social, and cultural determinants affecting Dengue emergence and transmission in Puerto Rico and their implications for Zika response. J Trop Med 2017;2017:14.
Lee SH, Nam KW, Jeong JY, Yoo SJ, Koh YS, et al. The effects of climate change and globalization on mosquito vectors: evidence from Jeju Island, South Korea on the potential for Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) influxes and survival from Vietnam rather than Japan. PLoS One 2013;8(7):e68512.
Lee SH, Nam KW, Jeong JY, Yoo SJ, Koh YS, et al. The effects of climate change and globalization on mosquito vectors: evidence from Jeju Island, South Korea on the potential for Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) influxes and survival from Vietnam rather than Japan. PLoS One 2013;8(7):e68512.10.1371/journal.pone.006851223894312)| false
Tjaden N, Suk J, Fischer D, Thomas S, Beierkuhnlein C, et al. Modelling the effects of global climate change on Chikungunya transmission in the 21st century. Sci Rep 2017;7:3813.10.1038/s41598-017-03566-328630444)| false
Haribar L, Demay D, Lund U. The association between meteorological variables and the abundance of Aedes taeniorhynchus in the Florida Keys. J Vector Ecol 2010;35(2):339–46.10.1111/j.1948-7134.2010.00092.x21175941)| false
Eisenberg J, Cevallos W, Ponce K, Levy K, Bates S, et al. Environmental change and infectious disease: how new roads affect the transmission of diarrheal pathogens in rural Ecuador. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103(51):19460–5.
Eisenberg J, Cevallos W, Ponce K, Levy K, Bates S, et al. Environmental change and infectious disease: how new roads affect the transmission of diarrheal pathogens in rural Ecuador. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103(51):19460–5.10.1073/pnas.0609431104)| false
Mier-Y-Teran-Romero L, Tatem AJ, Johansson MA. Mosquitoes on a plane: disinsection will not stop the spread of vector-borne pathogens, a simulation study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017;11(7):e0005683.2867200610.1371/journal.pntd.0005683)| false
Diem JE, Stauber CE, Rothenberg R. Heat in the southeastern United States: characteristics, trends, and potential health impact. PLoS One 2017;12(5):e0177937.2852081710.1371/journal.pone.0177937)| false
Vonesch N, D’Ovidio MC, Melis P, Remoli ME, Ciufolini MG, et al. Climate change, vector-borne diseases and working population. Annali 2016;52(3):397–405.
Caminade C, Turner J, Metelmann S, Hesson JC, Blagrove MS, et al. Global risk model for vector-borne transmission of Zika virus reveals the role of El Niño 2015. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2017;114(1):119–24.
Caminade C, Turner J, Metelmann S, Hesson JC, Blagrove MS, et al. Global risk model for vector-borne transmission of Zika virus reveals the role of El Niño 2015. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2017;114(1):119–24.10.1073/pnas.1614303114)| false
Reviews on Environmental Health is an international quarterly periodical that fills the need for rapid publication of specialized comprehensive review articles on hot topics in the field of environmental health. The journal is an inspiring forum for scientists, environmentalists, physicians, engineers and students active in the area of public health, including quality of life.