Associations of physical activity or sedentary behaviour with pain sensitivity in young adults of the Raine Study

Robert Wallerhttp://orcid.org/https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3183-7818 1 , Anne Smith 2 , Helen Slater 2 , Peter O’Sullivan 2 , Darren Beales 2 , Joanne McVeigh 3 , 4 ,  and Leon Straker 2
  • 1 School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, GPO Box 1987, Perth, Australia
  • 2 School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • 3 School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • 4 Exercise Laboratory, School of Physiology, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Robert WallerORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3183-7818, Anne Smith
  • School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
, Helen Slater
  • School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
, Peter O’Sullivan
  • School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
, Darren Beales
  • School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
, Joanne McVeigh
  • School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • Exercise Laboratory, School of Physiology, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
and Leon Straker
  • School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar

Abstract

Background and aims

There is high level evidence for physical activity (PA) improving outcomes in persistent pain disorders and one of the mechanisms proposed is the effect of exercise on central nociceptive modulation. Although laboratory studies and small field intervention studies suggest associations between physical activity and pain sensitivity, the association of objectively measured, habitual PA and sedentary behaviour (SB) with pain sensitivity requires further investigation. Current evidence suggests PA typically lowers pain sensitivity in people without pain or with single-site pain, whereas PA is frequently associated with an increase in pain sensitivity for those with multisite pain. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships of PA and SB with pain sensitivity measured by pressure pain thresholds and cold pain thresholds, considering the presence of single-site and multisite pain and controlling for potential confounders.

Methods

Participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 714) provided data at age 22-years. PA and SB were measured via accelerometry over a 7-day period. Pain sensitivity was measured using pressure pain threshold (4 sites) and cold pain threshold (wrist). Participants were grouped by number of pain areas into “No pain areas” (n = 438), “Single-site pain” (n = 113) and “Multisite pain” (n = 163) groups. The association of PA and SB variables with pain sensitivity was tested separately within each pain group by multivariable regression, adjusting for potential confounders.

Results

For those with “Single-site pain”, higher levels (>13 min/day) of moderate-vigorous PA in ≥10 min bouts was associated with more pressure pain sensitivity (p = 0.035). Those with “Multisite pain” displayed increased cold pain sensitivity with greater amounts of vigorous PA (p = 0.011). Those with “No pain areas” displayed increased cold pain sensitivity with decreasing breaks from sedentary time (p = 0.046).

Conclusions

This study was a comprehensive investigation of a community-based sample of young adults with “No pain areas”, “Single-site pain” and “Multisite pain” and suggests some associations of measures of PA and SB with pain sensitivity.

Implications

The findings suggest that the pattern of accumulation of PA and SB may be important to inform improved clinical management of musculoskeletal pain disorders. This study provides a baseline for follow-up studies using the Raine Study cohort. Future research should consider temporal influences of PA and SB on pain sensitivity, pain experience and consider using a broader range of pain sensitivity measures.

  • [1]

    Uthman OA, van der Windt DA, Jordan JL, Dziedzic KS, Healey EL, Peat GM, Foster NE. Exercise for lower limb osteoarthritis: systematic review incorporating trial sequential analysis and network meta-analysis. BMJ 2013;347:f5555.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [2]

    Lin C-WC, McAuley JH, Macedo L, Barnett DC, Smeets RJ, Verbunt JA. Relationship between physical activity and disability in low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain 2011;152:607–13.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [3]

    Hauser W, Klose P, Langhorst J, Moradi B, Steinbach M, Schiltenwolf M, Busch A. Efficacy of different types of aerobic exercise in fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Arthritis Res Ther 2010;12:R79.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [4]

    Landmark T, Romundstad PR, Borchgrevink PC, Kaasa S, Dale O. Longitudinal associations between exercise and pain in the general population – the HUNT pain study. PLoS One 2013;8:e65279.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • [5]

    Alzahrani H, Shirley D, Cheng SWM, Mackey M, Stamatakis E. Physical activity and chronic back conditions: a population-based pooled study of 60,134 adults. J Sport Health Sci 2019 (in press).

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [6]

    McVeigh JA, Winkler EAH, Howie EK, Tremblay MS, Smith A, Abbott RA, Eastwood PR, Healy GN, Straker LM. Objectively measured patterns of sedentary time and physical activity in young adults of the Raine study cohort. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2016;13:41.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • [7]

    Costigan SA, Barnett L, Plotnikoff RC, Lubans DR. The health indicators associated with screen-based sedentary behavior among adolescent girls: a systematic review. J Adolesc Health 2013;52:382–92.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [8]

    Wærsted M, Hanvold TN, Veiersted KB. Computer work and musculoskeletal disorders of the neck and upper extremity: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2010;11:79.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [9]

    Sluka KA, Frey-Law L, Hoeger Bement M. Exercise-induced pain and analgesia? Underlying mechanisms and clinical translation. Pain 2018;159(Suppl. 1):S91–7.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [10]

    King S, Chambers CT, Huguet A, MacNevin RC, McGrath PJ, Parker L, MacDonald AJ. The epidemiology of chronic pain in children and adolescents revisited: a systematic review. Pain 2011;152:2729–38.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [11]

    Coenen P, Smith A, Paananen M, O’Sullivan P, Beales D, Straker L. Trajectories of low back pain from adolescence to young adulthood. Arthritis Care Res 2017;69:403–12.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • [12]

    Swain MS, Henschke N, Kamper SJ, Gobina I, Ottová-Jordan V, Maher CG. An international survey of pain in adolescents. BMC Public Health 2014;14:447.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [13]

    Paananen M, O’Sullivan P, Straker L, Beales D, Coenen P, Karppinen J, Pennell C, Smith A. A low cortisol response to stress is associated with musculoskeletal pain combined with increased pain sensitivity in young adults: a longitudinal cohort study. Arthritis Res Ther 2015;17:355.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • [14]

    Naugle KM, Fillingim RB, Riley III JL. A meta-analytic review of the hypoalgesic effects of exercise. J Pain 2012;13:1139–50.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [15]

    Daenen L, Varkey E, Kellmann M, Nijs J. Exercise, not to exercise, or how to exercise in patients with chronic pain? Applying science to practice. Clin J Pain 2015;31:108–14.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [16]

    Vaegter HB, Handberg G, Graven-Nielsen T. Hypoalgesia after exercise and the cold pressor test is reduced in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients with high pain sensitivity. Clin J Pain 2016;32:58–69.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [17]

    Cook DB, Stegner AJ, Ellingson LD. Exercise alters pain sensitivity in Gulf War veterans with chronic musculoskeletal pain. J Pain 2010;11:764–72.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [18]

    Nielsen PK, Andersen LL, Olsen HB, Rosendal L, Sjøgaard G, Søgaard K. Effect of physical training on pain sensitivity and trapezius muscle morphology. Muscle Nerve 2010;41:836–44.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [19]

    Andrzejewski W, Kassolik K, Brzozowski M, Cymer K. The influence of age and physical activity on the pressure sensitivity of soft tissues of the musculoskeletal system. J Bodyw Mov Ther 2010;14:382–90.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [20]

    Geva N, Defrin R. Enhanced pain modulation among triathletes: a possible explanation for their exceptional capabilities. Pain 2013;154:2317–23.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [21]

    Tesarz J, Schuster AK, Hartmann M, Gerhardt A, Eich W. Pain perception in athletes compared to normally active controls: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Pain 2012;153:1253–62.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [22]

    Naugle KM, Riley JL, 3rd. Self-reported physical activity predicts pain inhibitory and facilitatory function. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2014;46:622–9.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [23]

    Ellingson LD, Colbert LH, Cook DB. Physical activity is related to pain sensitivity in healthy women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2012;44:1401–6.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [24]

    Waller R, Smith A, O’Sullivan P, Slater H, Sterling M, McVeigh J, Straker L. Pressure and cold pain threshold reference values in a large, young adult, pain-free population. Scand J Pain 2016;13:114–22.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • [25]

    Straker L, Mountain J, Jacques A, White S, Smith A, Landau L, Stanley F, Newnham J, Pennell C, Eastwood P. Cohort Profile: The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study–Generation 2. Int J Epidemiol 2017;46:1384–5j.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [26]

    Straker LM, Hall GL, Mountain J, Howie EK, White E, McArdle N, Eastwood PR. Rationale, design and methods for the 22 year follow-up of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. BMC Public Health 2015;15:663.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [27]

    McVeigh JA, Winkler EA, Healy GN, Slater J, Eastwood PR, Straker LM. Validity of an automated algorithm to identify waking and in-bed wear time in hip-worn accelerometer data collected with a 24 h wear protocol in young adults. Physiol Meas 2016;37:1636–52.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • [28]

    Matthews CE, Chen KY, Freedson PS, Buchowski MS, Beech BM, Pate RR, Troiano RP. Amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in the United States, 2003–2004. Am J Epidemiol 2008;167:875–81.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [29]

    Backonja MM, Attal N, Baron R, Bouhassira D, Drangholt M, Dyck PJ, Edwards RR, Freeman R, Gracely R, Haanpaa MH, Hansson P, Hatem SM, Krumova EK, Jensen TS, Maier C, Mick G, Rice AS, Rolke R, Treede R-D, Serra J, et al. Value of quantitative sensory testing in neurological and pain disorders: NeuPSIG consensus. Pain 2013;154: 1807–19.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [30]

    Göbel H, Cordes P. Circadian variation of pain sensitivity in pericranial musculature. Headache 1990;30:418–22.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [31]

    Javanshir K, Ortega-Santiago R, Mohseni-Bandpei MA, Miangolarra-Page JC, Fernandez-de-las-Penas C. Exploration of somatosensory impairments in subjects with mechanical idiopathic neck pain: a preliminary study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2010;33:493–9.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [32]

    Rolke R, Baron R, Maier C, Tolle TR, Treede RD, Beyer A, Binder A, Birbaumer N, Birklein F, Botefur IC, Braune S, Flor H, Huge V, Klug R, Landwehrmeyer GB, Magerl W, Maihofner C, Rolko C, Schaub C, Scherens A, et al. Quantitative sensory testing in the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS): standardized protocol and reference values. Pain 2006;123:231–43.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [33]

    Gröne E, Crispin A, Fleckenstein J, Irnich D, Treede R-D, Lang PM. Test order of quantitative sensory testing facilitates mechanical hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers. J Pain 2012;13:73–80.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [34]

    Walton DM, MacDermid JC, Nielson W, Teasell RW, Reese H, Levesque L. Reliability, standard error, and minimum detectable change of clinical pressure pain threshold testing in people with and without acute neck pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2011;41:644–50.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [35]

    Waller R, Straker L, O’Sullivan P, Sterling M, Smith A. Reliability of pressure pain threshold testing in healthy pain free young adults. Scand J Pain 2015;9:38–41.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [36]

    Ware J, Kosinski M, Turner-Bowker D, Gendek B. How to score version 2 of the SF-12 Health Survey. Lincoln, RI: Quality Metric Incorporated SF-12v2, 2002.

  • [37]

    Ottevaere C, Huybrechts I, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Sjöström M, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB, Hagströmer M, Widhalm K, Molnár D, Moreno LA, Beghin L, Kafatos A, Polito A, Manios Y, Mártinez-Gómez D, De Henauw S. Comparison of the IPAQ-A and Actigraph in relation to VO2max among European adolescents: the HELENA study. J Sci Med Sport 2011;14: 317–24.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [38]

    Prince SA, Adamo KB, Hamel ME, Hardt J, Gorber SC, Tremblay M. A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2008;5:56.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [39]

    Hennings A, Schwarz M, Riemer S, Stapf TM, Selberdinger VB, Rief W. The influence of physical activity on pain thresholds in patients with depression and multiple somatoform symptoms. Clin J Pain 2012;28:782–9.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [40]

    Armstrong N, Welsman JR. The physical activity patterns of European youth with reference to methods of assessment. Sports Med 2006;36:1067–86.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [41]

    McLoughlin MJ, Stegner AJ, Cook DB. The relationship between physical activity and brain responses to pain in fibromyalgia. J Pain 2011;12:640–51.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [42]

    Vaegter HB, Handberg G, Graven-Nielsen T. Similarities between exercise-induced hypoalgesia and conditioned pain modulation in humans. Pain 2014;155:158–67.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [43]

    Sterne JAC, Smith GD. Sifting the evidence – what’s wrong with significance tests? BMJ 2001;322:226–31.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [44]

    Ellingson LD, Shields MR, Stegner AJ, Cook DB. Physical activity, sustained sedentary behavior, and pain modulation in women with fibromyalgia. J Pain 2012;13:195–206.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [45]

    Kawi J, Lukkahatai N, Inouye J, Thomason D, Connelly K. Effects of exercise on select biomarkers and associated outcomes in chronic pain conditions: systematic review. Biol Res Nurs 2016;18:147–59.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [46]

    Slater H, Paananen M, Smith A, O’Sullivan P, Briggs AM, Hickey M, Mountain J, Karppinen J, Beales D. Heightened cold pain and pressure pain sensitivity in young female adults with moderate-to-severe menstrual pain. Pain 2015;156:2468–78.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • [47]

    Healy GN, Matthews CE, Dunstan DW, Winkler EAH, Owen N. Sedentary time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers in US adults: NHANES 2003-06. Eur Heart J 2011;32:590–7.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • [48]

    Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Cerin E, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, Owen N. Breaks in sedentary time: beneficial associations with metabolic risk. Diabetes Care 2008;31:661–6.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
Purchase article
Get instant unlimited access to the article.
$42.00
Log in
Already have access? Please log in.


or
Log in with your institution

Journal + Issues

Search